An alliance formed between France, Russia, and the United Kingdom. It was primarily a response to the growing power and ambitions of Germany in Europe.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, formed to counterbalance the Triple Entente. Italy later switched sides during the war.
WW1 was triggered by several interconnected factors: Nationalism (intense patriotism and rivalry between nations), Imperialism (competition for overseas colonies), Militarism (buildup of military forces), and Alliances (entangling alliances that drew many nations into the conflict).
- The immediate cause was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serbian nationalist in 1914.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914. This action led to a chain reaction of alliances and declarations of war, ultimately sparking WW1.
A German military strategy to swiftly defeat France in the west before turning to face Russia in the east. It involved a rapid invasion of Belgium, which brought the UK into the war.
At the outset of WW1, Canada had a volunteer-based army. Thousands of Canadians eagerly volunteered to fight for the British Empire, reflecting strong patriotism and a sense of duty.
WW1 significantly boosted Canada's industries, including manufacturing and agriculture, as they supplied the Allies with goods such as weapons, equipment, and food.
Canada raised funds for the war effort through the sale of Victory Bonds and introduced income taxes as a source of government revenue.
Governments used propaganda to shape public opinion and garner support for the war. It included posters, media campaigns, and other forms of communication to influence the population
**Military Voters Act:** Allowed soldiers to vote in federal elections.
- **War Measures Act:** Gave the government broad powers to deal with wartime issues.
- **Military Services Act:** Introduced conscription (mandatory military service) in 1917.
A coalition government formed during the war, bringing together Conservatives and Liberals to ensure political unity and support for conscription.
Canadian soldiers played crucial roles in major battles, such as Vimy Ridge, Passchendaele, and the Battle of the Somme, earning recognition for their bravery and effectiveness
Canadian forces served primarily in France and Belgium on the Western Front, where the most intense fighting occurred.
Canadians displayed strong patriotism and enthusiasm for the war effort, with many volunteering for service, supporting the troops, and contributing to fundraising initiatives.
Sir Sam Hughes was Canada's Minister of Militia and Defence. His leadership was marked by controversies, including issues with equipment supply and training.
Profiteers were individuals or businesses that made excessive profits from war-related activities, often at the expense of the government and soldiers.
WW1 led to significant changes in the role of women. Many women joined the workforce, taking on jobs previously held by men who were fighting in the war.
WW1 contributed to the eventual granting of voting rights to women in Canada, recognizing their contributions to the war effort.
Conscription, the compulsory enlistment of citizens into the military, led to debates and protests. Some individuals were exempt from conscription for various reasons, such as essential work or health issues.
The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty that officially ended WW1 in 1919. It imposed significant penalties and territorial changes on Germany, aiming to prevent future conflicts.
The Hundred Days Campaign was the final Allied offensive in the last 100 days of WW1, leading to the eventual defeat of Germany.
A part of the Treaty of Versailles, the War Guilt Clause assigned blame for the war to Germany and imposed reparations.
WW1 highlighted tensions between French-speaking and English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians were generally more opposed to conscription, which became a source of political and cultural division in Canada during the war.