Carbon & Hydrogen
Very large molecules. Ex.DNA
A small molecules that joins to form a macromolecules
A large molecule formed by repeating subunits of smaller molecules
A chemical reaction that produces larger molecules from smaller molecules that involves the removal of water
A chemical reaction where chemical bonds are broken that involves the addition of water.
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
1. Short term energy supply
2. Storage of energy
4. Cell membrane markers
Simple sugars consisting of one molecule unit.
By how many carbon atoms they contain. Ex.Pentose - 5 carbon sugar, Hexose - 6 carbon sugar
A molecule formed from 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration synthesis reaction
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
A polymer of monosaccharides
Starch, glycogen, and cellulose
- Energy storage for plants
- Found in plants
- Fairly straight chains
- Few side branches off the main chain
- Energy storage for animals
- Found in animals
- Many branches and side chains in the molecule
- Structural materials for plants
- Not digestable by humans
- Found in plant cell walls as a structural component
- Made up of beta form of glucose
- Alternating position of the oxygen in the glycosidic linkage
- Structural material in animals and fungi
- Found in exoskeletons of arthropod animals
- Similar to cellulose with beta linkages except that the glucose monomer has a nitrogen containing appendage
1. Long term energy storage
2. Insulation or prevention of heat loss
3. Protective cushion/padding around major organs
4. Structural components of cell membranes
5. Chemical messengers (ex. hormones & steroids)
Also known as a triacylglycerol or triglyceride, it is a lipid that has no groups that can ionize or become charged.
They are formed when 1 molecule of glycerol reacts with 3 fatty acids
The bond that holds the glycerol and fatty acids together
By the structure of the fatty acids within the fat molecule
A hydrocarbon chain that ends with a carboxyl (acid) group. Most fatty acids in cells contain 16 or 18 carbon atoms per fatty acid molecule
- Are fatty acids without double bonds
- All the carbons are "saturated with all the hydrogen it can hold. Ex. Butter, lard
- Usually solid at room temperature
- Known to contribute to heart disease and strokes
- There are double bonds between carbon atoms
- Where there are cis double bonds, the carbon atoms have less than 2 hydrogen atoms
- If there is one double bond, it is a monounsaturated fat
- If there are more than one double bond, it is a polyunsaturated fat. Ex. Vegetable oil
- Usually liquid at room temperature
- Thought to be healthier for your heart
By adding hydrogen. Some foods contain it to prevent them from becoming liquid form. Note: Saturated fatty acids only have single bonds & can pack tightly together. Unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds which causes the fatty acid to have a bent structure & prevents the molecules from packing tightly.
Similar to a fat molecule, but only has two fatty acids attached to glycerol.
Are important components of the cell membrane in the form of a lipid bilayer
Are constructed like fats except 1 fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group with a charged nitrogen attached. This part froms the polar "head" of the molecule while the rest of the molecule is nonpolar and resembles "tails"
Hydrophilic= Water fearing; not polar; no attraction to water :(; will group with other non-polar molecules.
Hydrophobic= Water loving; has attractions with water molecules :)
- Their structure consists of 4 fused carbon rings
- They are derived from cholesterol
- Steroid function as chemical messengers and form many important hormones. Ex. Aldosterone - Regulates sodium levels in the blood, Estrogen & Testosterone - Sex hormones maintain female or male characteristics
Found as a component of the cell membrane. However, too much cholesterol can lead to arterial plaques. Cholesterol is found in animal products and not in plant foods
1. Proteins compose the physical structures of tissues and provide structural support. Ex.
- Keratin in nails & hair
- Collagen for connective tissues, ligaments, tendons, cartilage
- Actin & myosin in muscles, cilia, and flagella for movement
2. Proteins perform metabolic functions. Ex.
- Enzymes help speed up reactions
- Hormones act as chemical messengers
- Immunoglobulins or antibodies help fight pathogens in the immune system
Amino acids. The sequence of amino acids gives the protein its characteristics
The amino group and the carboxyl (acid) group. It also has a R group or remainder of the molecule which can vary from a single hydrogen to more complex ring-like structures. The R group side chains have chemical properties such as being hydrophobic, hydrophilic, acidic, or basic. There are 20 amino acids.
Our bodies can produce 12 amino acids. The other 8 we have to obtain from our food, these are called essential amino acids.
2 amino acids joined together
The bond that joins 2 amino acids
A series of amino acids connected together with peptide bonds; usually a very long chain
A peptide bond is polar and thus, there frequently is hydrogen bonding between different parts along a polypeptide and also between polypeptides and proteins. Several polypeptides can make up a protein.
A polypeptide chain; a linear sequence of any amount and any combination of the 20 amino acids
A polypeptide chain orientation in space due to hydrogen bonding between different parts of the polypeptide chain; can be alpha helixes or beta pleated sheets
The 3D shape of the protein due to bonding between R groups. The shape determines the function of the protein.
Only found in proteins that consists of more than one polypeptide chain. It is a combination of many tertiary structures.
Happens when proteins are exposed to extreme heat or ph or salt concentrations. Bonds that hold the protein's specific shape are disrupted. Basically unravels the proteins.
Hint: Carboxyl group + amino group + r group
An accumulation of misfolded proteins are associated with diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and mad cow disease
1. Important for growth and reproduction of cells and organisms and control of protein synthesis
2. DNA is the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents. It contains all the information that programs all the cell's activities. DNA is an example of nucleic acids.
3. RNA works in conjunction with DNA to direct protein synthesis. RNA is another example of nucleic acids
Monomers for nucleic acids
Hint: Phosphate + 5 carbon sugar + nitrogenous base (with one or two rings)
- Six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen
- Included thymine, cytosine, and uracil
- Larger with 2 rings
- Includes adenine and guanine
Polymers of nucleotides that form from dehydration synthesis between nucleotides
Adenine pairs with thymine, guanine pairs with cytosine. Backbone is made up of the alternating sequence of sugar and phosphate
Stands for adenosine triphosphate. It is a nucleotide that has the function of being the carrier of energy in cells. ATP consists of the sugar ribose, the base adenine, and the 3 phosphate groups
Amino acids; enzymes
Glucose (monosaccharide); glycogen
Fatty acid + glycerol; vegetable oils
Polymer of hexogonal glucose molecules
Glycogen has more branching in its structure while amylose is more linear
Holding together multiple amino acids (OH (of carboxyl) + H (of amino) --> C-N with H above nitrogen and double bond O above carbon)
- Selective acceleration of chemical reactions
Ex. Digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of bonds in food molucules
- Storage of amino acids
Ex. Plants have storage proteins in their seeds
- Coordination of an organism's activities
Ex. Insulin causes other tissues to take up glucose, thus regulating blood sugar concentration
Contractile & motor proteins:
Ex. Cilia & flagella
- Protection against disease
- Transport of substances
Ex. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body
- Response of cell to chemical stimuli
Ex. Receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect signaling molecules released by other nerve cells
Ex. Keratin in hair, nails, horns, feathers, etc