Good nutrition means your body will perform better. Energy comes from the consumption of nutrients and provides building materials, allowing growth, development, and rebuilding injured and damaged cells.
The building blocks to build molecules, generate energy and assemble essential nutrients your body can't produce
Endotherms require more energy
All chemical reactions that occur in a living organism to maintain life
Reactions that break down large molecules into smaller ones.
Reactions that build larger molecules from smaller ones using energy.
Rate at which the body turns stored energy into working energy
Size, Sex, Physical Activity, age, hereditary
rate at which energy is used by an organism that is at rest
Basal Metabolic Rate
Approximate measure of body fat according to height and weight
Basal Metabolic Index
Carbs, Protein, Lipids, Water, Vitamins and Minerals
a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life
Organic and Inorganic
Organic foods are produced from living organisms. They are Carbs, fats, proteins and vitamins
Food that comes from rocks, soil and the sea. These are minerals and water
consumed in large amounts daily. These are carbs, fats and proteins.
Taken in small quantities. These are vitamins and minerals
an important part of a complete diet. Doesn't have any nutrients but helps in digestion
Complex Carbohydrates. Number of sugar molecules bonded together
found in plant cell walls. Indigestible by animals. It is fibre. Can be digested by herbivores.
Main source of energy. It is required for all bodily functions
Simple sugars, ringed structures. Glucose, fructose and Galactose. It doesn't need to be digested or broken down—good sources of quick energy.
2 simple sugars linked. Lactose (milk, sugar) sucrose (table sugar). Must be broken down before being used as an energy source by the body.
Chains of amino acids. 12 can be made by body, 8 must be obtained by diet.
Helps to repair and build tissues withing the body
Concentrated source of energy. Protective layer around organs. Phospholipid layer of cell membrane. Protective layer under the skin.
Store energy, signalling, and acting as structural components of cell membrane
Unsaturated are liquid at room temp and are considered to be good fats. (oil) Saturated fats are solid at room temp (butter)
must be obtained by diet (omega 3's)
lipids that are sex hormones
Long chains of carbon atoms with an acid group at 1 end
If a fatty acid chains one double bond, a kink forms which makes the molecules a liquid (cause they can't pack together as good)
If more than one double bond is present, the fat is said to be polyunsaturated.
Blood volume, keeps tissues moist, regulates body temp, dissolves nutrients
8 cups or 2L because it replaces that lost through urine, sweat, respiration
Elements that are required to build or repair.
Plants are good sources because they absorb minerals from the soil
Nutrients are required in small amounts. Most act as coenzymes
A, D, E, K
They are stored in the body (can't be eliminated quickly). The Body can't create these.
Dissolve in water, eliminated quickly, excess released in urine. Must be replenished everyday
Related to eating disorders. Can lead to serious and possibly life-threatening medical complications.
Stomach Rumble. A rumbling or gurgling noise made by the movement of fluid and gas in the intestines
All living things are made up of 1 or more cells. The cells are the simplest unit of life. All cells come from pre-existing cells
Cell, Offspring, Waste, Growth, Energy, Respond, Lifespan
Trillions of specialized cells work together to create tissues, which work together as organs, which work together as organ systems, which work together to keep you as an organism in homepstasis
Ability to maintain a stable, constant, balanced internal condition in the body
Structure always matches Function
Organ Systems, Organs, Tissues, Cells, Organelle, Molecules, Atoms
Cellular level. Cells can perform all the necessary functions that define life.
When cells come together to perform a similar function. Tissues include specialized cells forming muscle, nerve and skin
Connective, Epithelial, nervous, muscle
Connects, supports and blinds or separates other tissues or organs
Line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs
Organ Level. Where certain tissues come together to perform a certain function. (Organs found in the digestive system include the stomach, liver and small intestines)
Organ System. Groups of several organs work together to perform vital body functions.
Skeletal- bones, ligaments, cartilage. Muscular- skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles
Urinary- filters and excretes waste. (Control pH, and blood pressure) Integumentary- skin, hair, nails (protection, temperature, water) Immune and Lymphatic- infection, injury, and cancer
Reproductive- male and female
Can stop functioning or even die
Ingestion, Digestion, Absorbtion, Egestion
Take in nutrients (food)
Breakdown of nutrients. Physically and Chemically.
transfer from digestive system to circulatory system (bloodstream)
Removal of waste (undigested food) material
Series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from mouth to anus
supply digestive enzymes that break up food to make transportation and absorption of nutrients easier
Pancreas, Liver, Gall Bladder (includes salivary glands)
Chemical Digestion is the chemical breakdown by enzymes and water in saliva. Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food
Grabbing and cutting foods
Grinding and crushing foods
Secrete saliva, made up of enzymes and mucus
They are chemicals that speed up reactions (Amylase)
Lubricates and helps you to swallow foods.
Food that has been mixed in the mouth and saliva
Enzymes speed up the chemical reactions that breakdown food into smaller, simpler molecules that can pass through cell membranes (Catalyst)
Carbohydrates, Lipases and Proteinases
Soft Palate, Pharynx, Epiglottis
top of mouth
Back of throat
A flap that lowers on the windpipe to prevent food from going to the lungs. Important that it prevents food from going down into the lungs by mistake. Made up of tissue made of cartilage that prevents food from entering trachea
Waves of muscular movements move the bolus through the pharynx and esophagus towards the stomach
The soft palate lifts up to seal off nasal passages, then the tongue pushes on the back of the mouth to prevent bolus from coming up. The larynx moves up and the epiglottis covers opening to airway
Autonomic control from the brainstem. The tongue moves food around to speed physical and chemical digestion while forming a bolus that can be swallowed. The the epiglottis covers opening to the airway so food goes to the digestive tract, not lungs. Then the peristalsis creates waves of strong muscle contractions that push food along the digestive tract like toothpaste.
A muscular tube with 2 layers of muscle. 1 layer is circular and the other is longitudinal. These layers contract and relax creating a wave-like motion called peristalsis which moves the food down to the stomach.
J shaped (Can hold up to 4L of food) Storage of food. chemical and physical digestion occurs here.
'elastics' control the movement of food. Itv is found at both ends of the stomach.
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis and Serosa
Folds in the stomach that allow the stomach to expand so it can store up to 15L of food
Highly folded, secretes Gastric JUice, replaced every 3 days
Nerves (detects food, initiate gastrin release) Blood vessels
Muscle contracts to churn and mix. Food + Gastric Juice = 'Chyme'
Holds stomach together Eliminates rubbing between organs
Mucus protect stomach from the acid. Gastric Acid: hydrochloric acid (pH 2.0-3.0) KIlls microorganisms. HCI activate enzyme- Pepsinogen (converted into pepsin which breaks down proteins into amino acids
Gastric Gases are secreted and consists of 3 substances (Hydrochloric ACid, Mucus, Pepsin, and Chyme)
Kills bacteria and makes acidic environment for enzymes pH of 2
Protects the lining of stomach
An enzyme that breaks down protein. Some substances such as water, sugars, ions, and alcohol can be absorbed through the stomach lining
Name given to the contents of the stomach (Made up fo water, gastric juices and partially digested food)
Largest internal organ (size of a football) Removes and breaks down toxins in the blood. Breaks down old red blood cells and stores substances such as vitamins, and glycogen. Produces bile, antibodies and essential elements of the blood-clotting mechanism.
Connects liver to gall bladder
Stores bile. Bile- emulsifies fats, breaking them down to droplets. (Micelles)
Secrete: 1. Pancreatic amalyse- enzyme; breaks carbs. 2. Trypsin- enzyme; protein digestion. 3. Lipase- enzyme; that breaks down lipids. 4. Secretin- hormone; stimulates release of NaHCOs (Sodium bicarbonate) to neutralize acidic chyme digestive rate 'regulator'
Connects pancreas to duodeum
7m long. Has 3 sections; Duodeum, Jejunum and Illeum
Trypsin is made in the pancreas into the duodenum. Enzymes are added, majority of digestion takes place.
Some digestion and absorption begins
majority of nutrients absorbed, enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver aid in digestion process
Folds called villi increase surface area (10x) Each villi has microvilli for more absorption (500x) Capillaries (tiny blood vessels) absorb nutrients (Carbs, lipids, protein) to enter the bloodstream and deliver to cells. Vessels called lacteals allow fats to enter and go to the lymphatic system