what distinguishes mood from emotions?
mood has dimensions of valence & arousal, while emotions do not
which of the following is not a cognitive/behavioural symptom of depression
increased energy levels
what is the main diagnostic difference between a manic episode & hypomanic episode according to the dsm-5?
duration of elevated mood
which psychological therapt us often used to treat depressive episodes in BD & focuses on cognitive restructuring
cognitive behavioural therapy
what is the main difference between bipolar type 1 & type 2?
bipolar type 2 requires both hypomania & depression, while type 1 only requires mania & may/may not include depression
which is not a symptom described the dsm-5 of a depressive episode
which is not a common treatment approaxh for BD
what is the primary characteristic of BD?
extreme mood swings between depression & mania
which of the following mood disorders is characterised by persistent feelings of sadness, hopessness & a lack of interest/pleasure in most activities
major depressive disorder
what are the 2 broad types of mood disorders?
those that involve only depressive disorders
those that involve manic symptoms
what is the term for slowed physical movements & responses often seen in individuals with depression?
what happens to a person's sleep pattern during a manic episode?
they stop sleeping but remain incredibly energetic
what is they key feature that distinguishes cyclothymic disorder from other mood disorders?
alteration between mild symptoms of depression & mania
what are the primary neurotransmitters associated with mood disorders?
norepinephrine, dopamine & serotonin
which of the following is a function of the reuptake mechanism in the synapse
recapturing excess neurotransmitter
in individuals with current MDD, how does the amygdala react when shown negative words/pictures of sad & angry faces?
people with current MDD have a more intense reaction in the amygdala
what role does the striatum play in depression?
diminish activation in response to positive feedback
which personality disorder is characterised by a pervasive distrust & suspiciousness of others
the 3 Ps of personality disorders include all except
which is not a symptom or depression
in depression, the term anhedonia refers to
loss of capacity to feel pleasure
what are the 2 distinguishing features between mania & hypomania?
severity & duration
which of the following is not a 'cluster' of symptoms experienced by people with depression
which of the following is a cognitive symptom or depression
which of the following is a theory that helps to explain the factors of depressiom
which of the following is not a diagnostic difference between a manic & hypomanic episode
hypomanic episodes associated with functional consequences (eg. impairment), while manic episodes do not
which of the following is not true about electro-convulsive therapy (ECT)
it has the least effect on depression, compared to other treatments
which of the following treatments are not primarily used for depression
what is not a similarity between bipolar & depressive disorders?
which of the following brain areas are not diminished in depression
which of the following has the highest heritability estimates
what is the role of the amygdala in depression?
help a person assess how emotionally important a stimulus is
cognitive risk factors of mood disorders are all of the following except
which is not 1 of the 6 universal emotions
true or false: men are 3x more likely than women to commit suicide
which teching focused intervention will have the greatest impact on reducing the risk of relapsing for a client diagnosed with bipolar disorder
role of family as support
w patient is taking Lithium for bipolar disorder
which organ is at highest risk for damage from this medication?
a depressed client reports to a nurse a history of divorce, multiple job loss, family estrangement, and heroin abuse.
which theoretical principle best explains the etiology of this client's depressive symptoms?
according to learning theory, depression is a result of repeated failures
how does lithium help a BD patient
treat manic episodes
which of the following medications is approved for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents
how long must someone be exhibiting manic symptoms to be diagnosed with mania?