The study, through research, of mind, brain and behaviour.
A combination of openness and wariness, someone who is open to new ideas but wary of new scientific findings when evidence and reasoning do not seem to support them.
Mental activity is produced by biochemical processes in the brain.
Systemically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidence.
People are inclined to overweigh evidence that supports their beliefs and tend to downplay evidence that does not match what they believe.
Ignoring evidence, seeing causal relationships that do not exist, accepting after-the-fact explanations, taking mental shortcuts (heuristics)
When things that come most easily to mind guide our thinking. Eg: people tend to think sharks kill more people than horses do simply because shark attacks come to mind first.
The tendency to think we are better than others, or that we are at least better than average.
People lack the ability to evaluate their own performance in areas where they lack expertise. People are often unaware of their weaknesses because they cannot judge those weaknesses at all.
Eg: people who get lower scores on exams think they scored higher than they actually did while people with higher scores are better at judging what their scores are.
Are the mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the subjective experience of ongoing brain activity?
Are psychological characteristics biologically innate or are they acquired through education, experience and culture?
We now recognise that nature and nurture dynamically interact in human psychological development.
A theory proposed by Descartes that refers to the idea that the mind and the body are separate yet intertwined. The body is governed by reflex while the mind controls deliberate actions.
this approach states that complex mental processes can be reduced to simpler processes.
The Stroop test is used.
The mind is too complex to understand simply as the sum of separate parts. Psychologists have to examine the functions served by the mind. The mind came into existence over the course of human evolution and it helps us adapt to our environment.
This theory believes that a few basic principles guide visual perception which explain how visual input is grouped into a coherent whole.
It gives us foundational knowledge for studying how specific genes affect thoughts, actions, feelings and disorders. Also, most aspects of human psychology have some genetic component
There are deep connections between our mind and other systems in the body. There is a two-way relation between the gut microbiome and our mind and behaviour
Using tools from the computer science world we can identify patterns in large data sets and the availability of these very large data sets has increased the diversity of samples
Socially upheld rules regarding how people ought to behave in certain situations
Distributed practice, retreival-based learning (being tested), elaborative interrogation (thinking through why something is true), self-explanation (expalining something in your own terms) and interleaved practice (switiching between topics)
An enduring change in behaviour that results from experience
A neutral stimulus elicits a response because it has become associated with a stimulus that naturally produced that response. Learning that one event predicts another.
The contitioned stimulus precedes the unconcitioned stimulus, there are repeated pairings of the stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus, there is no better predictors of this stimulus.
if there is a repeated exposure to the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
There is sometimes a difference between the expected and the actual outcomes. Positive prediction errors happen when the stimulus is presented and there is a reward more valuable than expected and negative prediction errors happen when the reward presented is less valuable.
Generalisation is when stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response and discrimination is when an animal learns to distinguish between two similar stimuli, one of which predicts the unconditioned stimulus and the other does not.
No, conditioning occurs more easily for stimulus pairs that are relevant for survival. Such as conditioned taste aversion
Animals are genetically programmed to fear certain objects
The act of taking drugs becomes associated with the drug's effects.
Environmental cues associated with taking the drug lead to a tolerance increase becayse the body prepares to for drug intake
In operant conditioning we are responding for a stimulus instead of responding to a stimulus. In operant conditioning we have to operate something in our environment to produce an effect.
Behaviours followed by a satisfying consequence are more likely to be repeated in the future. Behaviours followed by a discomforting consequence are less likely to be repeated in the future.
The reinforcement of behaviours that are increasingly similar to the desired behaviour
When the value of a reward diminishes over time; a reward in the future is perceived as less valuable than an immediate reward.
Because the learner needs to repeat the behaviour more times to detect the absence of a reinforcement so the behaviour resists extinction.
Modelling is when we imitate a behaviour someone else does and vicarious learning is when we observe the consequences of a certain behaviour in someone else to see if it is punished or reinforced.
the mental manipulation of representations
It is thinking that is fast, intuitive and low effort and relies on heuristics.
It is categorising objects into groups with shared properties. It makes the world orderly and predictable.
The prototype model = the best example of a concept to which we compare other objects to see if they fit into this concept.
The exemplar model = all examples we have encountered make up the concept together.
Schemas are cognitive frameworks that help us perceive, organise and understand information. They help us organise our world, they are very functional and are a form of shared social knowledge. Activating one concept makes related concepts more accessible automatically.
Inner speech, inner seeing, feeling, sensory awareness, unsymbolised thinking.
They are simple decision rules so they do not take much effort but this can lead to mistakes.
They inform the choice of value, we weigh how different choices make us feel.
Choosing to do things because they will make us happy in the future. However, we are very bad at predicting our future feelings and we tend to overestimate the positive effects of positive experiences on our happiness and the negative effects of negative experiences on our happiness. Usually happy things do not make us as happy as we expected and we cope better with negative situations than we think we do.
The mood we are in when taking a decision can affect our decision, especially when we do not know why we are in a certain mood.
Having fixed ideas about the typical functions of objects, which can create difficulties in problem solving.
Identifying subgoals, finding conscious trategies, restructuring the problem, working backwards
Generalised intelligence, g
The capacity to reason and the ability to learn new things and solve problems. It decreases with age
Knowledge gained through experience and the ability to use the stored knowledge. It increases with age
Genetic factors: these explain about 50% of variance in intelligence.
Environmental factors: Breastfeeding, socioeconomic status, intellectual opportunities, schooling,
academic performance, job performance, income, health, longevity, ...
Quick reaction times and working memory capacity, especially in tasks that require secondary processing (components of a test that are distracting you from the task at hand)
Smallest units of language that have meaning, including prefixes and suffixes.
The basic sounds of speech. Each morpheme consists of one or more phonemes.
Language disorder that results in deficits in language comprehension and production.
A theory that believes language determines thought and that we can only think through language. This is not true because people without language are capable of thought; rather, language influences rather than determines thought
Up to 6 months
This is when babies use rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical markers but follow logical syntax and convey meaning.
A theory of language development suggests that people are born with a specialised language acquisition device in their brains that allows us to learn any language. This theory also says that all languages include similar elements (verbs, nouns) but they are arranged differently.
Phonics method = teaches the association between letters and the phonemes they represent. Better for reading proficiency.
Whole language approaches = learning the meanings of words and understanding how these are connected in sentences. Learning to read in the way they learn to talk. Better to motivate students to read.
An immediate, specific negative or positive response to environmental events or internal thoughts that prompt changes to thoughts or behaviours.
A subtle, diffuse, long-lasting emotional states with no specific trigger.
Primary emotions are innate, instinctual and evolutionariy, they are universal emotions. Secondary emotions are more complex combinations of primary emotions and are more culture-specific.
They are plotted on the dimensions of valence (positive - negative) and arousal (how activating they are). Moree complex emotions cannot be plotted because they can be both positive and negative at the same time.
The insula is specifically active when we experience disgust and the amygdala is very important for emotional learning and fear responses.
Yes, so we remember harmful situations and can avoid them.
This hypothesis says that changing one’s facial expression changes their emotional state. This is used as support for the James-Lange theory
Cognitive processes can affect emotions so emotions do not only come from arousal.
We cannot quickly determine which emotion we are experiencing from bodily responses.
Some emotions have very similar physical patterns of arousal.
Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
The misattibution of arousal, which is when the physical state caused by a situation are attributed to the wrong emotion. This has also been shown for the epinephrine study.
Suppression, reappraising, self-distancing, finding humour, refocusing your attention, distracting yourself
They are highly adaptive, hey prepare us for action and communicate dangers and signal waht we need. They are also important for managing relationships, showing we care and avoiding embarassment.
They determine a person’s level of autonomic arousal in order to detect lying, but this arousal is not specific for lying so people may be telling the truth and they are just nervous or scared.
Emotional expressions vary more than experiences, we all experience similar emotions but we may show them differently.
Social rules dictating which emotions are suitable in situations
The emotions that are most appreciated in a culture.
Eg: Westerners appreciate high arousal emotions (excitement) while asian cultures tend to appreciate low arousal emotions more (calm)
A need is a state of biological, social or psychological deficiency, while a drive is a psychological state that creates arousal to motivate an organism to satisfy a need.
A process that energises, guides, and maintains behaviour towards a goal.
A drive is when we are in a state of arousal due to a need and we do something to reduce the arousal. But motivation is not all about reducing arousal caused by drives, we also have motivation to pursue long-term goals, rewards and outcomes.
Basic survival needs, social and psychological needs, incentives and goals
It is highly adaptive and has many positive outcomes. We get social support, both instumental and emotional, we are dependant on each other for survival therefore belonging to a group and not being isolated was very important.
We are motivated to view ourselves positively, we focus on positive information about ourselves, often leading to bias.
We have a desire for coherent and stable self-views, we seek to confirm our self-concept even when it is negative.
External objects or goals rather than internal drives that motivate us to do something.
They start doing less of thos things, extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation.
The type of goal (better if challenging and specific), focus during the goal pursuit (focusing on the proess is best), self efficacy (believing our efforts can result in success), grit (ability to persevere when there are hardships) and the ability to delay gratification.
A positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction.
A model of health that integrates the effects of biological, behavioural and social factors on health and illness.
They are critical to health. People find it easier to change behaviours when their family or partner also change with them. We also learn from the people around us, care what they think and want to live up to their expectations.
Health disparities. They are usually due to people belonging to different racial and ethnic groups.
It is the fact that people with lower socioeconomic status have worse health than people with higher socioeconomic status, even when accounting for access to health care.
More polluted environments
More violent environments
Less access to healthy food
Less access to safe outdoor spaces
More chaotic and unpredictable environments
High levels of interpersonal conflict (leads to stress)
Major life disruptions are more likely (leads to stress)
Eating mostly plants, natural food that isn’t processed and not eating too much.
A collection of risk factors including high blood sugar, insulin resistance, high blood levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease.
Better physical and mental health
Helps coping with stress
Enhances the growth of new neurons
Enhances the production of synaptic connections
Promotes recovery from heart attacks
Reduces cognitive decline
A type of response that typically involves an unpleasant state, like anxiety or tension. It is a subjective experience
Major life stressors (change or disruption in a central part of one's life), chronic stress (set of ongoing challenges often linked to illness, poverty or caregiving), daily hassles.
It increases blood glucose levels
Prepares the body for injury
Saves energy by slowing processes like digestion down
Triggers a negative feedback, reducing the activity of the HPA
It affects the immune system
Causes brain regions with cortisol receptors to become less sensitive to the effects of cortisol over time.
It disrupts working and long-term memory.
Overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to higher blood pressure, constriction of blood vessels, increased release of fatty acids into the bloodstream, greater buildup of plaque in arteries, ...
Alarm stage, resistance stage and exhaustion stage.
It's the sympathetic nervous system’s response to a stressor, which enables the organism to direct all its energy to dealing with the threat by either fighting or fleeing.
The tendency to protect and care for offspring and form social alliances as the response to a stressor, rather than fight or flight.
By coping, by using appraisals that link our feelings with our thoughts to deal with stressors.
Primary appraisals involve making decisions about whether a stimulus is stressful, benign or irrelevant. Secondary appraisals part of the coping process during which people evaluate their response options and choose coping behaviours.
Creation of positive events
Reappraising one’s stress response as adaptive
It is a way to expand the view of what is possible in a situation (broaden) and develop new ideas and relationships (build) to help us cope.
It states that when others provide emotional support, the recipient is better at coping with stressful situations.
Our evaluations of other people, objects, events, and ideas which help make the evaluations of these things faster and easier.
Direct experience, cognitive processes (rational thinking) and emotional associations (from conditioning or the mere exposure effect)
It is an effect that says we like things more by simply seeing them more often.
Yes, because it is adaptive to have a higher sensitivity to danger
We use an implicit association test (IAT) because people are not conciously aware of implicit attitudes.
As a group measure, to find out implicit biases in an area and it is best used together with other measures and not on its own.
Not really, it's very hard to actively try not to think about something, you often end up thinking about it more.
Supressing the thought (not very effective), avoiding reliance on stereotypes when they are activated or avoiding stereotype activation altogether (very hard to do in practice).
The stonger the attitude the better it is at predicting behaviour.
The more accessible the attitude is, the more likely it will predict behaviour.
The more specific the attitude the more it predicts behaviour.
Depending on the domain of the attitude it will predict behaviour better or worse. (Eg: political party is more likely to predict voting patterns than blood donation will predict donating behaviours)
Th tendency to conform to the majority.
Group size and lack of consensus.
Gradual increments of commitment lead to higher obedience
Being close to the victim decrease obedience
The closeness of the authority figure (higher obidience if the authority figure is present rather than talking to you over the phone)
Legitimacy of the authority figure determines obedience (the more prestigious the more obedience)
The response that is most likely to be performed in a situation. These are behaviours that have consistently been useful and they become a habit that is then the dominant response produced by arousal.
The presence of others increases arousal, which facilitates the dominant response, this improves performance in simple and routine tasks but decreases performance in complex and novel tasks.
Social loafing = individual contribution not being identifiable
Dispensability effect = individual contribution will have little impact on group performance
Sucker effect = avoid being exploited
Social competition = group member try to outperform each other (individual contributions must be identifiable)
Social compensation = strong group members increase effort to make up for weaker members
Köhler effect = weaker members increase effort to avoid the responsibility of a weak group project.
Because of deindividuation. The anonimity of the mass reduces self-awareness, leading to anti-normative behaviour.
No, it results in stronger adherence to group norms, these can be positive or negative.
Proximity, familiarity, physical attractiveness
We associate good looks with good personality, life satisfaction and competence
Similarity and reciprocity
Our self concepts expand so that traits we associate with our partner become a part of us
The concern or fear people experience if they believe their performance on a task could confirm a negative stereotype about theur group.
A behaviour that interferes with a person’s ability to respond appropriately in certain situations.
When we diagnose people by putting a label on a cluster of symptoms. It implies that people either have or do not have a psychological disorder.
When we considers psychological disorders along a continuum on which people vary in degree rather than in kind. This recognises that many psychological disorders are extreme versions of normal feelings.
A method that defines the basic domains of functioning and considers them across multiple levels of analysis. It guides research on the underlying biological and psychological causes of disorders
An examination of a person’s mental functions and psychological condition to diagnose a psychological disorder.
The diathesis-stress model.
Yes, brain regions may function differently
An individual’s behaviour must be considered within a social context, particularly within the family.
It views psychopathology as a result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures.
Eccentric behaviour among the wealthy and elite might be tolerated or viewed as amusing, but the same behaviour in lower social classes is taken as disordered
Internalising disorders are characterised by negative emtions of fear or distress and they are more common in women.
Externalising disorders are characterised by impulsive or out-of-control behaviours and are more common in men.
When they have a strong biological component
Anxiety disorders, phobias, depressive disorders, bipolar disorder
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), eating disorders, addiction
In generalised anxiety disorder the anxiety is not focused so the person is constantly alert, while in social anxiety disorder there is a specific fear of being negatively evaluated by others.
An exaggerated and out of proportion fear of a specific object or situation.
For a major depressive disorder the severity is greater but more short lived, and for persistent depressive disorder the symptoms are less intense but long lasting.
Negative thoughts about oneself, the world around one and the future. Attributing misfortunes to personal defects while seeing positive occurrences as a result of luck. Seeing themselves as unable to have any effect on their lives
seeing themselves as unable to have any effect on their lives
Manic episodes are characterisitc, there is not necessarily any major depressive episodes. The impairment in daily living comes from the manic episodes.
Experiencing less extreme mood elevation (hypomania) but at least one major depressive episode.
Family history is the strongest predictor for bipolar disorders and successive generations tend to have more severe disorders.
Alterations in thoughts, perceptions and consciousness and psychosis (disconnection from reality).
Positive symptoms are features that are present in schizophrenia but not in typical behaviour, such as delusions or hallucinations. Negative symptoms are characteristics that are missing in schizophrenia that are typically part of daily functioning, such as apathy or slowed speech and movement.
No, but there are some traits that predict the development of schizophrenia later in life. Usually obvious symptoms of schizophrenia appear in late adolescence.
Obsessions are recurrent, intrusive and unwanted thoughts, ideas or mental images that increase anxiety, while compulsions are acts that people with OCD feel driven to perform repeatedly to reduce anxiety.
It could result from classical conditioning, where anxiety is paired with a specific event and the person engages in behaviour to reduce anxiety, which is reinforced by operant conditioning.
Binge eating only happens in people with bulimia and binge-eating disorder, but only people with bulimia will purge. People with anorexia nervosa have an excessive fear of becoming fat resulting in severe restriction on how much they eat.
Bulimia does not occur in all cultures and anorexia only occurs in societies with abundant food.
This is when a person needs to take more of a particular substance to achieve the same subjective effect.
A psychological and physiological state of anxiety, tension and craving for the substance. Physical symptoms often include nausea, chills, body aches and tremors.
The insula plays an important role in the craving component of addiction.
It comes from the brain reward system becoming less sensitive
The same level of use leads to addiction for some but not for others, adolescents high in sensation seeking are more likely to develop addictions, inherited risk factors such as risk-taking and impulsivity make someone more prone to addiction.
A prolonged psychological and physiological response to a distressing event, often one that profoundly violates the person’s beliefs about the world.
Nightmares, intrusive memories and flashbacks. Chronic anxiety, tension and health problems. The memory problem of not being able to forget something. Tend to be hypervigilant to stimuli associated with their traumatic event.
Disorders that involve disruptions of identity, memory or conscious awareness. Thought to be a functional response to an extremely distressing traumatic event, by cutting off the event from the rest of the person’s life and identity.
Interpersonal trauma in childhood, leading to an intense fear of abandonment.
Cluster A = odd or eccentric behaviour.
Cluster B =dramatic, emotional or erratic behaviours.
Cluster C = anxious or fearful behaviour.
They are just extreme versions of normal personality traits.
People diagnosed with personality disorders often meet criteria for another trauma-related disorder.
Diagnosis of personality disorders are highly stigmatising.
Psychopathy is an extreme version of antisocial personality disorder that includes the willingness to hurt others for personal gain.
Impaired communication, restricted interests and deficits in social interaction.
An odd speaking pattern where there is a repetition of words or phrases that someone else has spoken.
Yes, these disorders may related because they involve similar deficits in core psychological domains
Hyperactivity, restlessness, inattentiveness and impulsiveness. People with ADHD have a proneness to accidents
In brain regions involving attention, cognitive and motor control, emotional regulation and motivation.