A business philosophy emphasizing superior customer value creation.
: Conducted to expand knowledge, not to solve a specific problem.
Conducted to solve specific problems.
Internal Reports Systems
Marketing Intelligence System
Marketing Decision Support System (DSS)
Marketing Research System
Deontology: Concerned with the rights of the individual
Teleology: Balancing individual costs and group benefit
1Establish the need for Marketing Research
2Define the Problem
3Establish Research Objectives
4Determine Research Design
5Identify Information Types and Sources
6Determine Methods of Accessing Data
7Design Data Collection forms
8Determine the Sample plan and size
11Communicate the Insights
Formulate the Problem Statement.
Recognize the Problem: Gap between expected and actual outcomes.
Understand the Background of the Problem: Conduct a Situation Analysis.
Clarify the Symptoms: Identify and verify symptoms.
Determine Probable Causes of Symptoms.
Formulate the Problem Statement concisely.
- Research objectives must be clear, specific, and actionable.
- Hypotheses are used to define assumed truths for investigation.
- Constructs are abstract concepts composed of measurable variables.
- Action standards are designated quantities that must be achieved for a specific action.
- Marketing research proposal includes problem, objectives, method, deliverables, cost, and timetable.
- Research design is the approach used to meet the research objectives.
- Choices depend on the objectives and the existing knowledge.
- Exploratory Research: gain background information and develop hypotheses.
- Descriptive Research: measure the state of a variable.
- Causal Research: uncover relationships and causality.
- Experimental Design: manipulate independent variables to measure their effect on dependent variables.
abstract concepts composed of measurable variables.
are designated quantities that must be achieved for a specific action
problem, objectives, method, deliverables, cost, and timetable.
gain background information and develop hypotheses.
measure the state of a variable.
uncover relationships and causality.
Tailored data for each client.
Integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for a comprehensive understanding.
Laddering is a technique used to discover associations between product attributes and consumer values.
-Study of involuntary responses to marketing stimuli.
-Techniques include neuroimaging, eye tracking, and facial coding.
Examining data to uncover patterns related to research objectives.
- Describes phenomena of interest, such as consumer characteristics and market trends.
- Uses surveys to describe things like consumer awareness, intentions, and satisfaction.
- Answers questions of who, what, where, when, and how.
- Measures sample units at a single point in time.
- Provides snapshots of the population.
- Often referred to as sample surveys.
- Repeatedly measures the same sample units over time.
- Provides insights into changes in attitudes and behaviors.
- Requires access to the same panel of respondents
- Ask panel members the same questions on each panel measurement.
- Used to understand changes in attitudes and behaviors over time.
- Vary questions from one panel measurement to the next.
- Allows for quick access to a wide variety of purposes.
- Monitor the same variables of interest over time.
- Help in understanding market trends and changes.
- Attempts to uncover factors that cause events.
- Utilizes experiments to measure causality in relationships.
- Variables other than the independent variables that may affect the dependent variable.
- Must be controlled to ensure accurate results in an experiment.
- Procedure for setting up an experiment to attribute changes in the dependent variable to the independent variable.
- Ensures the validity of the experimental results.
- Measures a dependent variable before and after changing an independent variable.
- Helps to understand the impact of the change over time.
- Tests multiple independent variables simultaneously.
- Compares the effectiveness of different ideas or strategies.
- Specifies methods for data collection and analysis.
- Details the steps for a successful research project.
- Unstructured, informal research to learn about the research problem.
- Conducted early on to help determine research objectives.
- Secondary Data Analysis
- Experience Surveys
- Case Analysis
- Focus Groups
- Searching for and interpreting existing information relevant to the research topic.
- Core method of exploratory research.
- Gathering information from knowledgeable individuals.
- Also known as Key-Informant technique or Lead-User Surveys.
- Reviewing information about similar past situations.
- Aids in understanding current research problems.
- Conduct a Situation Analysis.
- Review internal and external secondary data.
- Conduct Experience Surveys, Case Analyses, Pilot Studies, and Focus Groups.
- Identify gaps between expected and actual performance.
- Evaluate the accuracy and timeliness of reported symptoms.
are services or vendors that Organize
and Package Information on Focused Topics.
Definition: Unique identifier linked to a single mobile device like a smartphone or tablet.
Purpose: Enables tracking and identification of the specific device.
Definition: Information that identifies the physical location of an electronic device.
Purpose: Helps determine the geographic position of the device.
is the ratio of positive to negative comments posted about products and brands on the web.
are collected automatically, often without consumers’ knowledge.
Definition: Research involving structured questions with predetermined responses to a large number of respondents.
Purpose: Provides numerical data for statistical analysis.
Definition: Research involving data collection by observing what people do and say.
Purpose: Aims to understand underlying motivations and reasons.
Definition: Emphasizes the importance of qualitative insights alongside quantitative data.
Purpose: Enhances understanding by providing context and depth.
Definition: Integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Purpose: Aims to leverage the strengths of both approaches.
Definition: Techniques for systematically observing and documenting phenomena.
Purpose: Allows researchers to directly study behavior in various contexts.
Definition: Research involving accompanying shoppers on a trip to observe and record their activities.
Purpose: Aids in understanding consumer behavior during the shopping experience.
Definition: Research where respondents document their experiences through their mobile phones.
Purpose: Gathers real-time, firsthand insights into consumer behavior.
Definition: Ethnographic study of online activities.
Purpose: Analyzes online communities and their interactions.
Definition: Online groups where members interact, provide ideas, opinions, and complete tasks.
Purpose: Facilitates data collection and idea generation through digital communities.
Definition: One-on-one interview to gain insight into a respondent's thoughts and behaviors.
Purpose: Uncovers deep-seated motivations and underlying attitudes.
Definition: Method that asks individuals to verbalize their decision-making process in a given situation.
Purpose: Provides insights into the decision-making factors and considerations.
Definition: Examination of qualitative data to uncover themes or patterns related to research objectives.
Purpose: Aids in organizing and understanding qualitative data for research insights.
Step 1: Organize the data
Step 2: Get to know the data
Step 3: Categorize the data
Step 4: Identify themes
Step 5: Identify substantiating examples of themes
Step 6: Communicate insights
Definition: Survey where an interviewer reads questions to a respondent and records answers without a computer.
Purpose: Allows for direct interaction and clarification during the survey process.
Definition: Survey where the interviewer uses computer technology to facilitate the interview process.
Purpose: Combines the advantages of both person-administered and computer-assisted methods.
Definition: Survey where the respondent completes the survey alone without human or computer administration.
Purpose: Provides privacy and convenience to the respondent during the survey process.
Definition: Survey where a computer poses questions and records respondents' answers, often online.
Purpose: Facilitates data collection and analysis in an efficient and standardized manner.
Definition: Percentage of the population that qualifies to be included in a survey.
Impact: Affects decisions about data collection modes for the survey, determining the sample size and survey method.
Definition: Determining a description or amount of a property of interest to the researcher.
Objective Properties: Observable and tangible
Subjective Properties: Unobservable and intangible, requiring translation onto a rating scale
Nominal Measures: Label objects
Ordinal Measures: Indicate relative size differences
Interval Scale Measures: Measure unobservable constructs using ratio or interval scales
Indicate relative size differences
Measure unobservable constructs using ratio or interval scales
Measures intensity of agreement or disagreement
Measures activities, interests, and opinions (AIOs) with a Likert scale
Measures brand, company, or store image
Uses a range from minus to plus with or without a zero midpoint
Obtain identical or very similar responses from the same respondent
Obtain truthful responses, accurately measuring the intended construct
Definition: Measures that label or categorize objects without any quantitative value.
Example: Colors, genders, categories
- Definition: Measures that indicate the relative size or order of objects, but do not specify the magnitude of the differences between them.
- Example: Rankings, grades, scales of satisfaction
- Definition: Measures that have equal intervals between values but do not have a true zero point.
- Example: Temperature scales like Celsius and Fahrenheit
- Definition: Measures that have equal intervals between values and a true zero point, allowing for ratios to be meaningful.
- Example: Height, weight, time, counts
Avoid loaded questions
Don't use double-barreled questions
Steer clear of overstated questions
Don't lead respondents to a particular answer
Definition: Refers to how the questions appear to the expert questionnaire designer.
Example: Questions that seem appropriate and relevant
Anonymity: Respondent's identity is unknown
Confidentiality: Respondent's identity will not be revealed to third parties
Definition: Used to identify respondents who meet the necessary qualifications for the research study.
Example: Questions that determine eligibility
Definition: The structure that outlines and connects the various elements and concepts guiding a marketing research project.
Identify the research problem.
Review existing literature and select relevant theories.
Define key concepts and variables.
Develop hypotheses based on the chosen theories.
Choose a suitable research approach and data collection methods.
Analyze data and interpret findings.
Refine the framework based on the results.
A theoretical framework is a structure that outlines the concepts, theories, assumptions, and variables that serve as the foundation for a research study.
questions used in the field to measure constructs
- Reliability refers to the consistency, stability, and repeatability of research findings.
- It ensures that the same results can be obtained when the measurement is repeated under similar conditions.
- Reliability is crucial for ensuring the accuracy and dependability of research data.
- Validity refers to the accuracy and truthfulness of research results.
- It ensures that the research accurately measures what it intends to measure.
- Different types of validity include content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, and face validity.