Danelaw was the area in the north and east of England where the Vikings ruled in de 9th and 10th centuries.
Danegeld was the tax that was levied on the inhabitants of Wessex, the south-western part of England, by king Ethelred, to raise money in order to pay off the Vikings, persuading them NOT to attack Wessex anymore. (around 950)
Henry III was king, but not a very good one, he kept on making mistakes and the barons (his nobles) had had enough of his blunders. In 1258 the leader of the nobles, Simon de Montfort (who was married to the king’s sister) forced the king to accept the Provisions of Oxford, creating a Privy Council of 15 members selected by the barons to advise the king. (elected officials overseeing the administration). The council met three times a year in a Parliament. The king was not happy with this and started a civil war, however, he was defeated by Simon de Montford in 1264.
In 1295 Edward I summoned two knights and lesser Church figures from each county plus two representatives from the towns (not from aristocracy or church) to gain support for military campaigns and to get more money. In 1297 he agreed never to collect taxes without the consent of parliament.
Later, around 1400 two houses emerged: the Commons and the Lords, both with equal powers in passing legislation, sealing the rights of the masses (ordinary people) to be heard in government.
pig – porque (French for pig) - the French never saw the animal in the farmyard, but the meat on their plates, thus the meat became known as pork.
Cow and beef, same story
Stool and chair: stools were the simple version, without a back or armrests for the common people. The upper classes (French) used chairs (from chaise)
It was around 1350 (1348-1349).
There were not enough people left to work the fields. In the past the serfs had to work the fields without being paid. Now they could demand wages and they could decide for themselves who to work for: it gave them power. The owners of the land (nobility) were obviously not working the land themselves, but were dependent on the revenue, yield from the fields (crops) for their incomes.
Michael Collins and Aemon de Valera were the main leaders in the struggle for Irish independence. Their fight had started with the Easter Rising in 1916 with many of their fellow leaders being executed by the British. Michael Collins more or less set up the guerrilla warfare now known as the IRA and continued fighting the Blacks and Tans (British law enforcers fighting Irish independence in Northern Ireland) in 1918 an Irish Parliament was set up in Dublin and Ireland declared itself independent, but this did not stop the fighting in Northern Ireland.
Britain offered Ireland independence with the following terms:
The king remained the king, Ulster remained British, England kept control of the main ports.
Michael Collins accepted, but Aemon de Valera did not: he wanted the whole Island to become the independent republic of Ireland and no British monarch.
This led to a civil war between these two groups, which stopped when Michael Collins was killed in 1922.
The Puritans from England = Pilgrim Fathers. They arrived in the Boston area in 1620. They were afraid of being persecuted for their “pure” form of Protestantism, as the king (James I) was the head of the Anglican Church, which was a form of Protestantism very much reminiscent of Catholicism ( apart from the Pope in Rome). They had tried to settle in the Netherlands, but could not settle there (language issues, as well as a difference in culture).
4 July 1776 with the declaration of Independence, which stated that the English colonies would be known as one country: the United States of America (written by Thomas Jefferson)
1770: riots against taxation by Britain on the inhabitants of the colonies. The colonies had no representation in parliament and because of that they complained. During the riot in Boston sticks and stones were thrown at the British army, one protester tried to grab one soldier’s gun, who shot it in fear. Then others started shooting as well. Three people were killed, but Paul Revere had a picture made, which was used by Samuel Adams as propaganda against the British (it showed soldiers shooting at ordinary people) and then people started calling it a massacre, to make colonists angry at the English.
after the civil war in 1865 the 13th amendment stated that slaves were free. The former confederate states did not want to accept this. One year later the 14th amendment stated that these former slaves were citizens of the USA with voting rights. Only Tennessee accepted all the other former Confederate states refused. Then Congress instituted the Reconstruction Act in 1867, dismissing the governments of the southern states, replacing them with governments consisting of former slaves, or people who were willing to help former slaves. Some governments were only people from the north. These governments passed laws to provide care for the weak (orphans, former slaves, the blind etc. ) and they encouraged the rebuilding of the south (buildings and roads, allowing black children to go to school to. The reconstruction act would last until the southern states accepted the 14th amendment. When it was lifted, the southern states introduced segregation.
They controlled the southern part of India. About AD1050 they ruled all the areas around the Bay of Bengal, including the islands on the other side like Sumatra and Bali, spreading Hinduism to Siam, Malaya and Birma.
The army under control of the British East India company had many Indian soldiers (sepoys), who were either Hindu or Muslim. In the 1850s cartridges were introduced that were greased with animal fat. This was an abomination for the sepoys and resulted in their rebellion (focusing on the Delhi region). During one year all people of British descent were killed by the sepoys. It is known as the Sepoy Rebellion. In 1858 they were defeated by the British army (the regular army)
He allowed the company to have a proper army, to negotiate about war and peace and to produce and use its own currency (money). In short: the company was given the same powers as a regular autonomous government.
They were former slaves (and a number of prostitutes) 330 blacks and 70 white prostitutes. As a result of the war of independence by America, these slaves, who had fought on the side of the British, were rewarded with a return to Africa where they could be free.
It was written that the people wear European clothes, and look respectable. There is now a regular village, with a church and gardens.
African National Congress (Nelson Mandela) and the National Party (Pieter de Klerk). A whites only referendum was held to decide whether to continue with the dismantling of Apartheid in 1992 and a 68% majority said yes.
April 1994 saw the first elections open for all citizens of South Africa 27 April is Freedom Day
The British acquired Hong Kong as a result of the first Opium War with China. When the Chinese government burnt 2 million worth of British opium, the British government sent the navy to China and blocked Chinese ports. As a result the Chinese had to negotiate. The result was that the British were given control of Hong Kong in January 1841. Hong Kong provided an excellent harbour and a firm base from which the navy could invade southern China by sailing up the Yangtze River. In 1843, the British formally established a Crown Colony in Hong Kong.
In 2002, on 12 July, the Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw issued a formal statement in the House of Commons, saying that after twelve months of negotiation the British Government and Spain were in broad agreement on many of the principles that should underpin a lasting settlement of Spain's sovereignty claim, which included the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar.
In November the Government of Gibraltar called Gibraltar’s second sovereignty referendum on the proposal. It achieved a turnout of 88% of which 98.97% of the electorate did not support the position taken by Mr. Straw.
Lawrence’s aim was to break the Ottoman Empire from within by stirring up Arab nationalism into a new and potent force that he believed could trump the German-sponsored holy war.
He was successful in his mission because , with his support, the Arabs waged a highly effective guerrilla warfare against Turkish communications along the Hejaz railway from Medina to Aqaba. By the autumn of 1917 they were probing Turkish defenses in Syria . He even entered the Holy City on foot through the ancient Jaffa gate.
The conviction of the Myall Creek murderers was one triumph for those whites who were determined to see Aborigines treated as equals before the law.
The Massacre took place on a sheep station in northern New South Wales at a time of conflict between Aborigines and European settlers.
In in June 1839 a group of armed white men on horseback surrounded and attacked a group of Aboriginals living there ( mostly women, children and elderly people). They cowardly killed 28 Aboriginal.
On his return William Hobbs, the manager of Myall Creek station, discovered the murders and reported them to the authorities. He went out of his way to get the men responsible brought to trial and convicted. It was very unusual for white men to be charged with murdering Aboriginals. However, after two trials and a great deal of controversy, seven men were found guilty of the murders and were hanged.
The ANZUS defence treaty was signed in 1951 with the United States and New Zealand, and Australia committed troops to the Korean War. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the U.S. under the auspices of the ANZUS treaty.
The treaty continued for decades, until The Fourth Labour Government revolutionised New Zealand's foreign policy, making the country a nuclear-free zone and effectively leaving the ANZUS alliance.
After the Disarmament and Arms Control Act was passed by the NZ government, the United States government suspended its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand.
After the dissolution of the (French) India Company the French explorer Marc Joseph du Fresne presented a project to Pierre Poivre, Civil Administrator of the Ile de France. One of the aims of the project was to explore the South Pacific, in the hope of locating Terra australis incognito.
After having his plans approved, du Fresne set sail in October 1771 and arrived in NZ in May 1772.
On the day of leaving, 12th July 1772, the French buried a bottle at Waipoa, on Moturua. Within the bottle was enclosed a formal statement taking possession of the whole country; with the name of "France Australe".
The Fourth Labour Government also changed New Zealand's foreign policy, to make the country a nuclear-free zone in 1984.
The Act prohibits "entry into the internal waters of New Zealand 12 miles (22.2 km) radius by any ship whose propulsion is wholly or partly dependent on nuclear power" and bans the dumping of radioactive waste within the nuclear-free zone, as well as prohibiting any New Zealand citizen or resident "to manufacture, acquire, possess, or have any control over any nuclear explosive device."
This anti-nuclear campaign is the only successful movement of its type in the world.