monosaccharides, disacharrides, polysacharrides
single unit sugars eg glucose and fructose
double unit sugars eg sucrose and plant sap
polymers of monosacharrides, complex carbohydrates e.g starch, glycogen, cellulose.
starch n glycogen= storage
acts as boundary that surrounds and contains the aqueous contents of your cells.
some r signaling molecules e.g hormones.
fats and steroids
animal fats (butter)
plant oils (olive oil, almond oil)
saturated (max amount of hydrogen molecules and no double bonds)
unsaturated (contains double bonded carbon atoms)
too much creates plaque in blood vessel and doesnt let the blood pass through the vessel to reach cell so cell dies which results in heart attack.
lipid molecule in which the carbon skeleton forms four fused rings.
cholestrol (precursor of signaling molecules)
polymers constructed from a set of js 20 kinds of amino acids.
antibodies, hair and fur muscles, enzyme
structure determines function
denaturation of a protien is when a change in the environmental factors, pH, temp or another quality of the environment causes a protien to unravel and lose its shape.
temp, environment, pH
side group bonds
sequence of amino acids
start up energy for a reaction
reactant that attaches itself to an enzyme
part of an enzyme in which the substrate is fitted
compounds that speed reactions up without being used up themselves
a recycable protien substance that speeds reactions up by lowering activation energy
the actove site changes its shape slightly to fit the substrate better thus the tighter grip on the substrate from the active site weakens its bonds.
by accepting two substrates and holding them close by, the enzyme can catalyse the formation of larger molecules from smaller molecules
an enzyme for the hydrolysis reaction of sucrose