What does Markovnikov's Rule state?
the rich get richer - the c-atom in the double bond with the most hH-atoms already bonded will get another H-atom
What raction is Markovnikov's Rule used for?
What does Saytzeff's Rule state
the poor get poorer, c atom with fewest h-atoms will lose another
What reactions is Saytzeff's Rule used for?
What is the suffix of alcohold?
anol, hydroxy, hydroxyl
What is Luca's Reagent used for?
to differentiate between 1,2,3 alcohols
When does the solubility of a primary alcohol decrease?
When the molecule gets larger
What kind of forces do alcohols have?
tdd, pd, and h-bonding
What is the overservation of MnO4- --> Mn2+ ?
purple to colourless
What is the observation of MnO4- --> MnO2 ?
purple to brown ppt
What is the suffix of an aldehyde?
What is the suffix of a ketone?
What does Tollen's reagent do?
Aldehydes reduce the silver ions to metallic silver, ketones cannot
What is the observation of tollens reagent with an aldehyde?
colourless to metallic silver
What does Benedict's Solultion do to aldehydes?
oxidises it into a carboxylic acid
What are the observations of benedicts solution and aldehydes?
deep blue to brick red ppt
What reagent is fehlings solution similar to?
What does reflux do?
reaction occurs at reactants boiling point, vaporation returns to reaction vessel
What does distillation do?
vapor is condensed into liquid
What happens to red litmus or universal indicator do to Amines?
Turns it blue
How are amines named?
1, amine, 2, N,
What is the suffix of an ester?
What is the suffix of an amide?
Does an addition polymer result in the loss of atoms?
What happens during a condensation reaction?
removal of H2O or HCl