Projects are costumer focused, complex, one-time processes.
Limited by budget, schedule, and recources.
Projects are developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals.
A portfolio is a group of different programs and/or projects within the same organization, which may be related or unrelated to one another.
A program is a group of projects that are similar or related to one another, and which are often managed and coordinated as a group instead of independently.
Projects are unique and temporary (with a definitive beginning and ending), while operations are ongoing and permanent.
Projects can take many shapes and forms, which makes classifying them into types a very difficult task that requires different approaches.
One simple way to categorize projects is to look at their source of capital.
· Private projects: Projects that are financed by businesses or private organizations.
· Public projects: Projects which are funded by Government agencies.
· Mixed projects: Projects that are financed by a public-private partnership.
The six main project constraints are time, cost, scope, quality, resources, and risks.
o First look for the impact of the change on the project, regarding the 6 constraint (scope, time/schedule, resources, etc.) There might be various impacts, like eg. slippage, cost increase, etc.
o Identify possible interaction/solution scenarios like in the example I told you during the lecture: If you should reduce the project duration, scenario 1 is to add resources, scenario 2 is to reduce scope.
o Analyze the different scenarios’ impacts on all project constraints. Eg. adding more resources increases cost, some new risks can emerge (like eg. new resources may need training time to work properly, etc.).
o Compare the scenarios’ impacts, and based on that make a conscious decision which to choose.
o Plan the interaction.
o Implement the plan.
The waterfall methodology is a linear project management approach, where stakeholder and customer requirements are gathered at the beginning of the project, and then a sequential project plan is created to accommodate those requirements.
Hybrid project management combines elements of waterfall and agile methodologies to make the project management approach best suited for an individual use case.
Agile project management is an incremental and non-linear approach to project management. It focuses on breaking down large projects into more manageable tasks, which are completed in short iterations throughout the project life cycle.
- Project integration management. ...
- Project scope management. ...
- Project time management. ...
- Project cost management. ...
- Project quality management. ...
- Project resource management. ...
- Project communications management. ...
- Project risk management.
- Project procurement management.
- Project stakeholder management.
Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing.
Milestones are key dates for the project and my be related to project deliverables, starting or closing dates,important events or decision making points
Stakeholders are those with an interest in your project’s outcome. They are typically the members of a project team, project managers, executives, project sponsors, customers, and users.
- It is basically a visual representation of what we think about the stakeholders of the project in terms of map’s dimensions. A popular version is an influence and support matrix.
- A stakeholder map reflects an evaluation about the project stakeholders regarding the given criteria.
Milestones or tasks
Activities or action items
Sub-tasks or to-do items
A project sponsor (or Godfather) is a senior-level manager who does everything possible to promote the project, including obtaining the needed resources, coaching the project team when problems arise, calming the political waters, and protecting the project when necessary. A sponsor has elected to actively support acquisition and implementation of the new technology and to do everything in his power to facilitate this process.
1. Scrum master: The Scrum Master is the person on the project team responsible for moving the project forward between iterations, removing impediments, and resolving differences of opinion between the major stakeholders.
2. Development team: The organisational unit responsible for delivering the product at the end of each iteration (Sprint).
3. Product owner: The person representing the stakeholders and serving as the voice of the customer.
Project Planning and Monitoring: Assist project managers in creating project plans, defining scope, setting schedules, managing budgets, and tracking progress against milestones.
Risk Management: Identify, assess, and mitigate project risks, and establish risk management processes to ensure project success.
Resource Management: Allocate and optimize resources across projects, ensuring that the right skills and capacity are available when needed.
Clear Functional Hierarchies: In a functional organization, the hierarchy is based on specialized functions or departments, such as marketing, finance, engineering, etc.
Functional Managers: Project managers have limited authority and are often called "expediter" or "coordinator." They do not have control over resources or budgets.
Specialized Expertise: Employees are grouped according to their expertise and often report to functional managers who are experts in their respective fields.
Resource Sharing: Resources are shared across projects and are under the control of functional managers. Project managers must negotiate with functional managers for resource allocation.
Limited Project Focus: The primary focus is on the functional work, and projects are secondary. Projects are seen as a means to deliver specific work rather than as the primary focus.
Dual Reporting: In a balanced matrix, project managers and functional managers share authority and control over resources. Employees often report to both functional and project managers.
Resource Allocation: Project managers have more influence over resource allocation compared to a functional organization. They can negotiate for resources but do not have full control.
Project and Functional Objectives: Employees have responsibilities to meet both project and functional objectives, striking a balance between the two.
Flexibility: The organization has some flexibility to adapt to project needs while maintaining functional excellence.
Improved Communication: Dual reporting and shared authority require improved communication between project managers and functional managers.
Project-Centric: In a projectized organization, project managers have full authority and control over the project, including resources and budgets.
No Functional Managers: There are no functional managers, or if they exist, their role is limited. Employees are assigned to projects and report directly to project managers.
Dedicated Teams: Project teams are often dedicated solely to the project's success, and team members may work exclusively on that project.
Quick Decision-Making: Decision-making is expedited, as there is no need to negotiate with functional managers for resources.
Project Management Templates and Forms
Historical Project Data
Organizational Policies and Procedures
Government Regulations and Standards
Clear Project Objectives
Effective Project Leadership and Management
Stakeholder Engagement and Communication
Skilled and Committed Project Team
Robust Project Planning and Execution
Project Risk Management
Monitoring and control
Work breakdown structure, breaks down projects into manageble tasks.
A network diagram is a visual representation of the relationships between various elements within a complex system or project.
Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project's completion date or affecting subsequent tasks.
A Pareto diagram, also known as a Pareto chart, is a graphical tool used to display and analyze data in a way that highlights the most significant factors or issues in a dataset.
The 5M method, also known as the 5M analysis, is a problem-solving and root cause analysis technique used to identify and understand the factors or causes contributing to a problem or issue.
The 5 Whys method is a simple but effective problem-solving technique that is used to identify the root cause of a problem or issue. It involves asking "why" repeatedly, typically five times (hence the name), to delve deeper into the causes of a problem.
Provides an at-a-glance overview of key performance indicators (KPIs) and critical information related to a specific process, system, or operation.
Earned value is a method for quantifying the value of work completed up to a certain point in the project and comparing it to the planned or budgeted value for that work.
It provides valuable insights into whether a project is on track, ahead of schedule, or behind schedule, and whether it is under or over budget.