1-6 years old
Skeletal development and Brain development
- Epiphyses emerging (bones growth)
- Losing baby fat
-Losing baby teeth
It insulates the axon and it speeds up the electricical communiacation with the axon (between the neurons)
Emotional regulation, thinking, planning
The localisation/assignment of roles on each hemisphere of the brain.
The left hemisphere
Cerebellum, Reticular formation, Amygdala, Hippocampus, Corpus callosum, Pituitary gland (RAP-CC)
Balance and control of body movement, muscle memory
Alertness and consciousness
Processing of novelty and emotional info (emotional regulation)
Memory, spacial processing
It is made of fibres that connect both cerebral hemispheres
Growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone
The rapid increase of new neural connections
The dying off of unused neurons that are unnecessary because they have not been used, and take up energy for nothing.
At about 4 years old
Running, crawling, jumping, riding a bicycle
Coordination, endurance, speed, balance, agility.
In experience expectant activities like running, jumping, and catching, there is a critical period, which means that a child should learn to do these things on their own within a given time frame. Non expectant activities such as riding a bike or learning to swim depend on the parents' timing and ability.
Zipper, buttons, dressing/undressing/scribbling/drawing, tying shoes
a) basic scribbling (2 y/o): not planned, think about what is drawn after the fact
b) first representational forms "tadpole images," limited shapes (3-4 y/o)
c) more realistic drawings (5-6): animals, people, houses, flowers
d) Early printing (4-6): typically in captial letters. Depends on reading experience and exposure to language
- Socialization in gender differences
- Adult encouragement
- Hormones and heredity
- Injuries and disease
- Toddlers become picky eaters and tend to eat less food
- Nutrition aids in proper development in motor skills and cognitive function, growth levels
- Illness could lead to low appetite which can negatively affect body
- Make-believe play
- Symbol real-world relations
- Child's play is less self-centered
- More complex stories with details
- Stories are not based on real life
- Lack of conservation
- Lack of hierarchial classification
Failure to distinguish one's viewpoint from your own
When Lisa (adult) and 4 year-old Grace are looking at a 3D volcano from different angles, Lisa asks Grace to describe what Lisa would see. Grace will describe what SHE sees, and will believe that Lisa sees the same thing.
Why? Because Grace doesn't distinguish her viewpoint from Lisa's.
Lack of conservation is the inability to recognize that physical changes to a space will not affect its contents. For example, a toddler who sees two glasses will equal shape and equal amount of liquid inside, there are no questions asked. Then, one liquid is poured into a differently shaped glass. Even though the physical characteristic didn't change, the appearance did, which leads the toddler to believe that there in fact different quantities (when they are really the same).
Categorization, class inclusion problem. Ex.: not being able to group apples in the "apple category" AND the "fruit" category.
- Egocentrism: evidence of 3 year olds of less egocentrism in certain tasks
- Logical thinking: simple tasks such as conservation are successful by age 3
- Categorization: inferences made and categories are evident in everyday knowledge
Social interaction with language
- Private speech
- Zone of proximodistal development (ZPD)
Children's self-directed speech
Piaget: "egocentric speech"
Vygotsky: "foundation for higher cognitive processes"
It becomes "silent inner speech," meaning that children still talk to themselves, but inside rather than talking out loud.
Social developement theory (Vygotsky)
Space between a child's learning experiences and their potential competence they can achieve with the guidance of a parent.
Process of guiding and shaping a child to reach their potential competence.
- Influential ZPD (basic to complex stories)
- Ideal for social and cognitive development
- Often accompanied with private speech
- Accounting for sociocultural influences
- Emphasis on the teacher's role in cognitive development
- Not well researched
- Overemphasis on the role of language in thinking and says little about other capacities
Flexibility shifting, inhibition, working memory, planning
Recognition and recall, episodic memory
Attention; focus and attention span increase with age
4 year olds can switch rules
Capacity to use specific rules or instructions to complete a task.
Chid will postpone action in favor of planning (planning before acting).
- Using cultural tools (like instructions to build Lego)
- Poverty negatively affects executive function
- Mneumonic devices
- Organizing information into categories
Description of famililiar and routine events, which helps children organize, interpret, and predict future events.
Ex.: Knowing what will happen on school mornings: Get up, bush teeth, breakfast, school bus...
For meaningful, one-time events. Improves with cognition and coversation.
Repetitive and elaborative
250 words and 10 000 words
Social, Perceptual, Linguistic (PSL)
- Add -ing or -s to express meanings
- Overgeneralization: overextend rules to exceptions. Ex.: one tooth, two tooths
Effective and appropriate communication
Face-to-face interaction and turn taking
Infers speaker's intention, indirectly expressed. Ex.: getting a look from your mother which indirectly means "no."
Speaking and giving directions on the phone
Recast: correcting child's speech without judgement
Expansion: elaborating on child's speech by adding verbs and conjunctions
Knowledge that everyone has desires, and desires connect to behaviour
Ability to distinguish from real and not real
Understanding that behaviour is based on beliefs, even if beliefs are wrong.
Initiative vs. guilt
Self-judement and opinion about oneself
Children often overestimate their desired abilities veruses their actual competence
Eagerness to try new tasks, join activities, make decisions on their own
Overly strict superego causing too much guilt. Related to parental criticism, punishment
Shame is a feeling like withdrawal or revenge when a child is humiliated. Guilt is when personal moral standards are hurt after trying to improve behaviour
Supportive parenting that focuses on improving performance
Temperament and parenting
- Nonsocial (playing alone)
- Parallel (playing near others)
- Associative (playing separate activities but commenting on others')
- Cooperative (playing together)
Girls = sociodramatic play
Boys = rough and tumble
Cooperative, emotional expressiveness, children with good friends will be happier to go to kindergarten
Emotional understanding, self-regulation, empathy and sympathy, self-consciousness, link to emotion and behaviour (feels sad, so will cry)
Ability to control one's emotions
- throwing tantrums
- uncontrolled physical or verbal outburts
- breaking things
- blames others for their failures
- difficulty with emotional regulation
- learned helplessness
- excessively feeling shame, guilt, doubt...
Parenting and temperament
- Best style
- Adequate control, high warmth
- Results in child's high self-esteem, social and moral maturity
- High control, low warmth
- Child has less autonomy
- Results in child's anxiety, unhappiness, low self-esteem
- Low control, high warmth
- Parent not so much involved
- Results in child being disobedient, poor school performance, impulsivity
- Low warmth, low control
- Parent is indifferent about what goes on in child's life
- Results in child's poor school performance, poor emotional regulation, antisocial behaviour
Imitation leads to disinhibition;
Counter-imitation leads to inhibition
Inhibition (holding it IN)
- Positive reinforcement (adding something good to continue behaviour
- Positive punishment (adding something bad to decrease beahviour
- Negative reinforcement (remove something bad to continue behaviour
- Negative punishment (remove something good to decrease behaviour
When it's given immediately after undesired behaviour occurs.
- Time away from an activity (time out)
- Redirecting to another activity
- Withdrawing privilege
Any act that seriously endangers a child, physically or emotionally.
Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect
Depression, impaired empathy/sympathy, impaired emotional self-regulation
Substance abuse, violent crime
Lower performance in school, poor nutrition, impaired executive functions