long-term physiological changes that occur in response to consistent exercise training over time. usually 6+ weeks improving persons performance and overall fitness. They occur in various physiological systems including cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems.
Stroke volume amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat by left ventricle of the heart becomes more efficient at contracting and pumping blood, increase in stroke volume.
decrease in resting heart rate. heart is able to pump more blood with each beat, so it doesn't need to beat as constantly to meet body's demands
The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute The product of stroke volume x heart rate
Blood flow is improved due to endurance training Increased capillarization of trained muscles means enhances blood flow to muscles, improving oxygen delivery and waste product removal during exercise.
Consistent aerobic exercise helps regulate blood pressure, both at rest and during exercise.
Exercise promotes better elasticity of blood vessels and helps in lower blood pressure over time
Amount of volume of blood which helps deliver oxygen better by red blood cells
in the blood during intense exercise. aerobic training improves the body's ability to clear lactate, leading to lower resting blood lactate levels and better lactate threshold during exercise
cardiac hypertrophy, which is an enlargement of the heart muscle. seen in the left ventricle, of the heart responsible for pumping blood to the body.
Unlike aerobic exercise, which tends to lower resting heart rate, anaerobic exercise lead to a slightly elevated resting heart rate. cardiovascular system adapts to the increased demand for rapid energy production during intense bursts of activity
Anaerobic improves blood vessels to regulate blood flow to working muscles. Good for delivering oxygen and nutrients to muscles and removing waste products.
anaerobic exercise can increase in blood pressure due to the increased demand for oxygen and energy substrates by working muscles.improving the ability to rapidly adjust blood pressure to meet the demands of intense exertion
cardiovascular system becomes more adept at quickly responding to demands for increased blood flow, oxygen delivery, and nutrient transport during intense bursts of activity.
experience a decrease in respiratory rate. because of the increase in tidal volume.
Tidal Volume (TV) is the amount of oxygen that is inhaled as each inhalation is done
Due to the increase Tidal Volume, respiratory rate decreases At rest, the average adult has a tidal volume of 500ml each time they inhale.
Lung ventilation is calculated by (respiration rate X tidal volume). Lung ventilation and Tidal Volume work together due to increase in tidal volume, lung ventilation is also increases
process of oxygen moving from the lungs into the Bloodstream. Larger inhaled oxygen amounts create a steeper concentration gradient, aiding more effective diffusion. This process supports oxygen supply to tissues, vital for cellular energy production.
Lactate is generated during intense exercise when oxygen is limited, leading to muscle Fatigue When training aerobically, the lactate inflection point Is increased. This means the body is able to get in and transport enough oxygen so that there is suﬃcient oxygen to remove lactic acid from the blood delaying the onset of fatigue.
Aerobic training fast twitch type fast twitch muscle fibres can adopt traits of slow twitch type fibres.
Muscle fibers experience heightened mitochondrial count and size enhances the body's aerobic ATP increases lactate inflection point.
Myoglobin protein in muscles that binds to oxygen role is moving oxygen from blood to muscle, Helping oxygen delivery increase in myoglobin presence within muscle tissue, a protein which is renowned for it’s oxygen-binding capacity.
Muscles have better amounts of energy resources like glucose. Better breakdown of fuel to generate energy. Better to give energy sources for increased physical demands.
the muscles will grow to increase muscular fuel stores and muscle ﬁbres. Stronger strength, power exertion, Improved endurance and better injury prevention