A change in a person's thoughts, feelings or actions due to the real or imagined prescence of another.
We underestimate that we're all in a social ecosystem where what other people do influence how we feel, think and behave. We overestimate our independence.
Responding favourably to a request made by someone else.
A strategy to gain compliance where you get someone to agree to a big request by getting them to first agree to a small request.
Authors went door-to-door to ask if they could put a huge safe driving sign on people's lawns, and were rejected most of the time. However, if they went days in advance to ask them to put a safe-driving sticker on their fridge, they have a much bigger chance of agreeing to the safe driving sign.
Concept: foot-in-the-door technique
When people are asked to spend 3 hours collecting donations for cancer research, people would likely say no. However, their chances of agreeing to do so increases when they are asked if they supported cancer research before you ask them to volunteer.
Concept: foot-in-the-door technique
When you notice somebody helping you, you are more likely to help them back.
Waiters were told to leave mints with the check. The more mints they left, the bigger the tip. When they went back to give another mint because the customer's been "so good", the tips double.
Concept: reciprocity trick
Changing your thinking, feeling or behaviour to match that of another person or group.
2. Moral values
If we see some individual being favoured as a mate, we are more likely to favour them as a mate as well.
Participants were given simple perception tests of looking for a line that was longest. When put into a condition group with others that gave an obviously wrong answer, they also gave the same wrong answer. only 25% of people stayed independent throughout the study.
1. Normative conformity: fear of social rejection and needing to be likes.
2. Informational conformity: to be correct and relying on other people for information.
What everybody should/should not do.
What people are actually doing, seeing what others are doing and conforming to the same thing.
People on facebook were shown a number of those who have voted or others they know that have voted. More people who saw the informational message rather than the social message.
Concept: informational conformity
1. Conformity can lead to private acceptance, not just private compliance.
2. When we aren't conforming, our brains generate a conflict signal.
3. Conformity can alter preferences rapidly
A person has changed how they think and feel in response to social pressures instead of just going along with things
Simply matching the behaviour of others on the surface but still clinging to personal opinions privately
People rated the attractiveness of faces followed by a 2 second social feedback of other's ratings of the same face. When asked to rerank the faces, the new rankings were similar to that of the other's ratings. When brain activity is measured, it reacted more to faces ranked attractive by others.
Concept: conformity can lead to private acceptance, not just public compliance.
2. Lack of expertise
3. Group size
People around a participant point and look up. The larger the group, the more likely the participant will also look up, nowever, it is not linear and there's a point where the bigger group size does not make people more conforming.
Concept: Group size affects levels of conformity.
We absorb and exhibit the emotions of others
Manipulated what participants saw on their feed to reduce either positive content or negative content. People are more likely to make negative life updates when positive content is reduces and positive life updates when negative content is reduced.
Concept: Emotional contagion
Changing one's behaviour in response to the demands of an authority figure.
Evil can be so boring and mundane that we don't even recognize it. If people don't recognize social influences, even the worst deeds can be explained away with "I was just following orders".
Participants were led to believe that they were helping in a study about learning and told to give shocks to someone at the instruction of another. The person getting shocked is shown to be in pain as the voltage gets higher before eventually pretending to be dead. 65% of people will obey their instructions. This drops to 10% if there are others who rebel.
Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accordance with social pressure.
Our moods tend to be similar to those around us.
Our behaviour is mimicked from those around us.
Imitation suicides effect, fata car accidence and private plane crashed increase after well-publicized suicides.
1. Victim's emotional distance
2. Authority's closeness and legitimacy
3. Whether authority was part of a respected institution
4. Liberating effects of another disobediant participant
1. Group size
5. Public response
6. No prior comittment
Collectivist cultures conform more.
Some might conform more due to conformity being evolutionarily beneficial.
Working class people conform more while middle class likes individuality
No large gender differences in conformity, each conform more on topics others would be more knowledgable about.
but women's conform more in situations where other's reactions can be observed.
People conform to differenct social roles in different contexts and locations.
In Western cultures, people feel uncomfortable when they are too much like everyone else, and they need to be moderately unique.
Happens as a response to restrict people's freedom, with reactance as a motive.