around 3 or 4 weeks
forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
anterior and posterior
controls motor movements
ccontrols the upper brain to the spinal courd and the involentary responses.
controls the central nervous system
links formed by messages from one nerve cell to another
thinkng, including, problem solving, perceiving, remembering, using languge and reasoning.
how we reason nnand think about things
knowing things exsist even though its out of sight
symbloic play, egocentrism, animism.
using one object to represent diffrent objects
beleiving objects can behave as if they are alive
children can also see through their own eyes
children ask a lot of questions.
can only consider one aspect when something is complex
they have difficult ideas with morality
sorting objects, such as into size
naming and identifying objects accourding to size or appearence
they know that lenght, quantity or numbers are not related to how things look
the ability to take multiple views of a situation
childrens representations of the world from their own experiences
there is control ober thoughts
young people can think about multiple things when describing people.
they can think about how time changes things.
incorporating new experiences into existing schemas
when a schema has to be changed to deal witha new experience
using assimilation nd accomodation to make sence of the world
when a childs schemas can explain all that they experience, state of mental balance
great deal of research, including experiments to show the existence of stages and how children build their knowledge.
didnt look into the influence of cultural setting and social interactions.
piagets data came from interviews and interactions with children, therefore his interpretations of the situations may be subjectibe.
is the set of beliefs we all have about our ability to succeed in education and otheer areas
what someone can do, such as maths ability or ability to play tennis.
when you try to do better using determination
beleiving your abilities are fixed and unchangable
beleiving practise and effort can improve your abilities.
it has practical application, teachers or parents can focus on praising effort rather than ability in order to encourage them.
The theory is positive- it shows that change is possible, therefore it helps society.
artificial setting-results may not represent real life.
studying mindset of children may present the child to focus on their problems with progress.
to see at what ages children are egocentric and not
children aged 4 to 6.5 place the doll to their own view point rather than others
from 7 to 9 children start to understand viewpoints of others. By 9 to 10 children can notice that others have diffrent viewpoints
children up to 7 years old were ego centric
a basic understanding of ideas and facts that is used when making decisions
praising the individual rather than what they are doing
someone praises what is being done, not the individual
a belief that behaviour or ability results from a persons nature
a belief that effort drives behaviour and ability which can change
the extent to which the findings still explain the behaviour in real life situations
they wanted to know if:
if parents give girls less process praise and more process praise than boys.
if the parents praise effects the childs reasoning five years later.
how children are affected by diffrent types of parental praise.
children were asked 2 questionares about what they thought led to a persons intelligence and what let people to act morally(or not).
3% of parental comments were praise.
process praise was 18 percent of all praise
person praise was 16 percent of all praise.
24.4 percent of praise for boys was process
10.3 percent of praise for girls was process
natural setting - by recording the praise given to them at their home in a typical day.
researchers who videotaped the data did not know that parental praise was the point of intrest
the ethics of theory can be criticised.
parents may have changed their style of praise because they were being observed, therefore the theory may lack validity
standars of what is right and wrong behaviour that can diffrent between cultures.
childrens growing understanding about right and wrong
rules put into place by others
rules can be decided by the individual person
from 5-10 children beleive rules cannot be changed. Their ideas of morallity come from others around them. They tend to focus on an actions consequences. For example breaking a rule leads to punishment. From 10 years a child knows the intention of actions is important
level 1 - pre conventional moraility
level 2 - conventional morality
level 3 - post conventional morality
children obeying in order to avoid punishment
about self intrest "whats in it for me"
is being seen as good and conforming to social rules - wanting to be liked
maintaning social order by obeying authority
is about laws being social contracts which individuals enter into, so there can be diffrences in morality between individuals based on what laws theyve agreed to
is the understanding that moral reasoning is abstract and there are universal ethical principles that must be followed. Emphasises right and wrong actions beyong individual laws.
societys values and customs which a person in that society would be governmed by.
he is a cognativve scientist who studies thinking and brain activity.
has diffrent parts for processing information coming in from our senses including visual and sound data, and also involoves a decision making part.
our initial memory store that is temporary and limited
repeat information over and over to make it stick
a memory store tha holds potentially limitless amounts of information for up to a lifetime
actions that involve muscles and brain processes, resulting in movement.
use problems that are new and within a students ability, but also requires effort.
understand a students likely stage if development when planning activities
remeber a students abilities are variable and can change from day to day.
consider factors other than developmental level. For example, the student might not understand the task.
children are treated as individuals. They are provided with lots of stimulation and material to practise skills and build schemas. Children are practising their skills by getting information from their senses. Colours are important as young children can easily distiguish them. Singing and rythm can help language development.
children must do things to keep learning and building schemas. rather than watching someone else do it. They need a lot of experiences to extend their understanding as they focus on just on problem. Ecouraged to learn by interacting with the enviromnet
children are asked to concentrate on more than one aspect of an issue. Teachers can assume children can understand diffrent viewpoints from their own, therefore they can construct tasks accordingly.
children can discuss about abstracct concepts and be asked complex questions involving mental reasoning.