dehyrdation (condensation) reaction: a chemical reaction in which subunits of a larger molecule are joined by the removal of water.
hydrolysis reaction: water used to break down a compound
neutralization reaction: an acid and a base combine to create a salt and water
redox reaction: an electron transfer reaction.
A polar covalent bond is unequal sharing of electrons between 0.5 to 1.7.
Nonpolar covalent bond is equal share of electrons below 0.5.
Ionic bond is transfer of electrons above 1.7.
cohesion, adhesion, specific heat capacity, heat of vaporization, highest density at 4°C
Glycostatic bond forms between a glucose and fructose monosaccharide
Peptide linkage is found along a protein chain
Ester linkage formed between oxygen molecules of glycerol and hydroxyl molecules of fatty acids
Phosphodiester in DNA and RNA
primary structure: the sequence of amino acids linked together to form a polypeptide chain
Secondary structure: is comprised of regions, stabilized by hydrogen bonds between atoms in the polypeptide backbone
Teritary structure: overall three dimensional arrangement of its polypeptide chain in space
Quaternary structure: most intricate degree of organization still considered a single molecule
they are highly specific, and only bind certain substrates for certain reactions
The head face at words, because the heads containing the phosphate group are hydrophilic, and the cytoplasm of the cell is an aqueous environment
atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but different number of neutrons
radioactive of an element that spontaneously decay into smaller atoms, subatomic particles, and energy
molecule formed by covalent bonds, the atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
A chemical (weak acid or base) that compensates for smaller pH changes in a solution by accepting or donating H ions
Movement of water molecules from a high concentration to a lower concentration
movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to low concentration
unfolding or breaking up of a protein modifying its standard three-dimensional structure
non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the proteins biological activity
it can neutralize small amounts of added acid or base
proteins, amino acids
lipids: fatty acid and glycerol
nucleic acids: nucleotides
lowering the activation energy needed for the reaction to start
molecules that increase the activity of an enzyme are called activator while molecules that decrease activity of an enzyme are called inhibitors
temp: 37.5 or between 20-35
pH of 7
detoxification, muscle building, breaking down food particles during digestion.
DNA is double stranded, forming a double helix, while RNA is usually single-stranded. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose, whereas RNA is ribose. DNA uses, adenine, cytosine and guanine. RNA uses adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine.
saturated fatty acids lock double bonds between the individual carbon atoms, while unsaturated fatty acids are usually solid at room temperature and from animal sources unsaturated fats are often liquid and from plant sources
at high temperatures, cholesterol asked to stabilize the cell membrane and increase its melting point