Africanna Studies: Medieval Ghana 🇬🇭, Mali , & Songhai Civilizations I
This General fought in the Battle of Kirinia , vanquished the Soninke ruler Soumaro , staged conquest of vulnerable territories , and self proclaimed as a Mansa of Mali Empire 🇲🇱 in 1235 A.D.
This King ruled Songhai Empire from 1492 A.D. to 1528 A.D. . He was an Askiya , which was a titular designation for the African King . His political administration included the appointed Fari ( Governor ) who administered the military , the finance , and public affairs . His assigned Noi ( the Chief ) presided over the metropolis . Who was this African King ?
Askiya Muhammad Ture
Niani operated as an Ancient Capital of Medieval __?__ 🇲🇱 . Identify the Empire
Nia resonates as the Capital that is geographically licated in a country North of Nigeria 🇳🇬. Where precisely is it ?
Medieval Ghana had two principle Gold extractives , which generated substantial capital gains and revenues.
Bambouk & Felame
Mauritania 🇲🇷 is an integral part of the North Africa. Identify the name of its Capital .
In the wake of the Saharan Desertification , there was the inevitable Intracontinental migration and shifting of the African mass to the Nile Valley. This spurred the outgrowth of the Sacral Chiefdom in the Nile Delta of Lower Egypt 🇪🇬. The highest clustered around the 2nd and 3rd cataracts of this __?__ of the Nile in Ancient Nubia .
I am vacationing in Abuja . Where is this Capital geographically located ?
Gao became the 12th Capital of Songhai 🎵 Empire . Is this true or false ?
Contemporary Ghana is often confused with Medieval Ghana whose geographic zones differed substanially . Then what is the neoteric Capital of Modern Ghana 🇬🇭 ?
This provincial Kingdom primordially evolved around 300 B C. Its isolated Metropolis was south of Timbuktu along the confluence of Bani and Niger 🇳🇪 rivers . The African indigenes dwelt in mud walled compound . By the 9th Century C.E. ( circa 800s A.D. ) , the Iron Age coexistence surfaced . The symbiotic trade had 5 enterprising communities : Bambaras of Millet ; Fulani of Sorghum ; the Tuareg transhumancts of butchered livestock and the Bozo & Somoro of piscatorial procurement . Along the Niger inland Delta , they marketed these Articles of Commerce : African Oryzza Glaberrima ( rice ) , alabaster and orange yam 🍠, fishes 🐟 , palm 🌴 oil , esculent greens , & meats . The specialized Cadre of fishermen , metallurgists , fruit peddlers , & vegetables hawkers , Terra Cotta Potters , and Gold quarrysmiths barteted freely . This vulnerable Kingdom was once the jurisdictional province of the Malian Emperor Abubakari the Second in 1311 A.D. Thereafter , it fell prey to failed International Diplomacy and crisis : the Siege
This 13th Century C.E West African Sahelian Empire of Mali had dual economic infrastructure: Agriculture and Pastoralism , which served as the Critical import of its thriving empire : Millet , Sorghum, and rice . These were common crop cultivars . Along the Northern border of the Sahel , transhumance grazing and raising of livestocks : cattle , camels , dramedary , goats , and sheep flourushed and took momentum .
Mali 🇲🇱 Empire 's Economy
The Mande interstates were organuzed into 2 components: land and hamlet ( village ) called Kafu ( plural form = __?__ ) . The latter was a loose confederation or cluster of villages so governed ny a Farma ( One who paid tribute to the Malian Mansa ) .
Tribal Mande Kafì ( Mali Empire)
The West African Sahelian Empire of the 13th Century C.E had placed heavy imprimatur and dependency on Commerce and Mercantile trade in Gold and Balsam Salt .
Mali Empire: Commerce and Mercantilism
Prequel to Mali Empire : This General of Northern Senegal 🇸🇳 launched the conquest of Medieval Ghana's Capital : Koumbi Saleh circa 1230 A.D. This culminated into Medieval Ghana's loss of commercial stability . This marked the final ɓlow & anti-climax of Medieval Ghana. Takurs gained the leverage of territoral expansion
Circa 1235 A.D. This Mandingo and Mande Warrior was known by a sobriquet , the Lord Lion . He led the Keita clan and partook in the Battle of Kirinia. He waged a victorious defeat of the Vanguished Soumaoro Kante, the King of Southern Soninke ( a/k/a Sosso). Sundiata conquered the timberland , the Niger Bend, and other absorbed terrains. Sundiata self proclaimed as Mansa and named Niani as the Ancient Mali Capital. His reign endured from 1235 A.D. - 1245 A.D.
Sundiata the 13th Century C.E
Niani of the 13th Century C.E as first named by the self proclaimed Mansa Sundiata in 1235 A.D . What was it ?
Mali's Ancient Capital
Mali's Neoteric Capital
The Titular designation of a King in Medieval Mali beggining in the 13th Century C.E.
A dedicated army of eloye Cavalry and infantry as raised and regulated . It was charged with Law and Order . The Royal Court of Medieval Mali was a legitimate power who commanded this Militia .
Mali 13th C. Militia
Islam ☪️ : its gradual conversion to the Orthopraxtic principles of the 13th Century C.E. The remnant authority , however , upheld the traditional beliefsand the Spiritualism of the atavistic worship called Animism . Mansa's successessors converted to Islam ☪️ as devout Muslims. Sundiata kept it at bay while his successors cinverted to Islam as Devout Muslims. Their acknowledgement of traditional Deities as well as active participation in the tribal rituals & festivals remained . True of the Cardinals to the Mande .
Medieval Mali's Religion
Mansa Sundiata's son who reigned from 1245 A.D. to 1270s A.D. in Medieval Mali . ULi adopted Islam ☪️ as , "... Court religion ..." Mansa ULi launched his Hajj ( pilgrimage ) to Mecca . This was where he gained recognition in the Islamic World. ULi's Court as staffed with literate Muslim Sectretaries and Accountants .
Reign onset : 1285 A.D. A successive King of Medieval Mali 🇲🇱 and ex slave who banished and expurgated the Tuareq from Timbuktu. Timbuktu thereafter was elevated as the Centre of Erudition, Learning, and Commerce.
Reigned from 1307 A.D. to 1311 A.D. : Mali 🇲🇱 Empire. This personage led a Transoceanic Voyage and NEVER return as per testimonial anecdote . His lengthy absence constituted as an abdication of power . His fraternal kin , Musa , after one year of regency assumed the throne .
Abubakari the Second
Reigned 1312 A..D. - 1337 A.D. A man of power and recognition . Renowned for his legendary Hajj to Mecca circa 1324 A.D . An astonishing retinue of 500 fettered slaves each carrying 500 mitqal ( a significant equivalence and calibration of weight ) . The Egyptian Mamluk dinar experienced depreciation and currency devaluation for decades.
Mansa Musa of the 14th Century C.E
Also knows as al Sahili was commissioned by Mansa Musa to construct Mosque and Masjid during the 14th Century. His Islamic architecture integrated Mansa Musa Kingdom into the Muslim ☪️ World .
Architect Ishal al Tuedjin
A Thriving Publishing trade as Book Copyist. The enterprise was both prolific and profitable with propitious outcome. The appealing manuscripts were sold at the pivotal centers of Scholarship: Timbuktu and Djenne Djenno.
Medieval Mali : Book Copying
Reign : 1341 A.D. - 1360 A.D. Suleyman maintained the portable legacy of his predecessors in mercantilism, Scholarship , and Kingdom success .
Suleyman, a Mansa
The changing character of the political government ensued after Mansa Suleyman's reign . Sudden attack in all cardinal directions : Mossi states' incursion via Cavalry ambush and raid of Mali 🇲🇱 Southern border ; Tuareg avenged its expurgated status by reclaiming Timbuktu in the Northern border ; and the Fulani ( Fulbes ') erosion & annihilation of Mali Imperial authority in the West . There began their installed and independent , ".. Immanate of Futa Toro " as successor to the Kingdom of Takrurs . To the East , a broken alliance between Serer and Wolof redefined their relations .
Downfall of Medieval Mali 🇲🇱
1545 A.D. - 1546 A.D. The Ancient Capital of Medieval Mali 🇲🇱 was assailed and conquered by the Next emerging Empire : Songhai thus marking the final terminus of Medieval Mali .
Niani Under Siege
Medieval Mali 🇲🇱 : Who destroyed its Kingdom ?
The Mossi States , Tuareg , Fulani , the Ethnically dichotomized Serer & Wolof and Finally , the Songhai's incursion in this progressive sequence
1599 A.D. : A Monopolistic Loss of Bambouk quarried Gold . This furthered hastened the political chaos as characterized by political disintegration, internecine struggles , imbued leadership , civil strife over petty politics . Anticlimactic Medieval Mali 🇲🇱 ensued . What is the central motif of this passage ?
Medieval Mali 16th Century C.E Loss