the science of the action of food, beverages, and their components in biological systems
a compound that provides a needed function in the body
the nutrients the body needs in larger amounts
the body needs in smaller amounts
made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
examples: whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, rice, sugary snacks/drinks, and pasta
comprised of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen
examples: nuts, beans/legumes, skim milk, egg whites, and meat
fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols (cholesterol). composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
examples: oils, butter, and egg yolks.
1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius
fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, dairy, and oils
a cheaper alternative to sucrose, and made up of 50% glucose and 50% fructose
complete or incomplete
provide adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids
do not contain adequate amounts
indigestible matter, that
it survives digestion in the small intestine and reaches the large intestine
contains both nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin
contains nondigestible carbohydrates only and can be isolated, extracted, or synthesized
Fiber that contains both dietary fiber and functional fiber
carried in lipids, fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the lipids stored in the body.
vitamins A, D, E, and K
absorbed with water in the gastrointestinal tract.
eight B vitamins and vitamin C
Fiber that is found to lower cholesterol levels.
Fiber that binds to water and allows for soft fecal matter