Skin on the outside of the body protects from organisms entering.
Digestive tract and respiratory prevent organisms entering from inside.
If anything does pass, the innate system stimulates the adaptive
it is slower
contains macrophages that engulf bacteria and present its antigen to helper T cell and cytotoxic cell.
cytotoxic T cells kill organism
helper T cells recruit B cell, which replicate and generate antibodies.
those tagged with antibodies are set for destruction
skin microbiota, epithelial cells and innate and adaptive arms of the immune system communicate
keratinocytes begin the communication by sensing microorganism.
pattern recognition receptors identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns.
so the binding of PAMPs to PRRs triggers innate immune responses.
• Production of the serine protease glutamyl endopeptidase (ESP) break down those biofilm connections.
• Induce antimicrobial peptide production by skin cells to kill s. aureus.
by producing antibiotics which combine with humam antimicrobial peptides
Propionibacterium acnes can enhance S. aureus biofilm formation through production of coproporphyrin III.
Oral microbes secreted proteins, peptides and proteases altering the host actin cytoskeleton in the gingival epithelium. (break it down)
Allows bacteria to enter the blood stream.
Bacteria form biofilms within atherosclerotic plaques and cause coronary artery disease.
• Secreted proteins activate the immune system causing inflammation.
• Cytokines-mediated (IL-6 and IL-8) inflammation (because of the immune response) is associated with coronary artery disease.
• Also, some proteases activate the complement system generation and inflammatory response.
• E. coli
• Lactic acid bacterium (lactobacillus)
lactic acid bacteria predominent as it is able to metbolise the glycoen to lactic acid
because of the absence of the lacric acid that inhibit colinisation by non lactic acid bacteria
meninges and it contains range of immune cells
• Influences immunity and metabolism of gut and a range of organs.
• Brain malfunction due to Hepatic encephalopathy and kidney disorders observed in people with liver ailments.
• Impaired brain function often observed in patients with advanced liver diseases.
• Decreased metabolism of ammonia associated with liver failure are also associated with HE.
• cardiovascular diseases of the heart and blood vessels (CVD) are associated with fatty liver and other liver disorders.
• Dysbiosis increases gut permeability allowing microbial metabolites to reach the liver-->Affect hepatic immunity and inflammation.
• Immune cells activated by these metabolites can also reach liver through lymphatic circulation.
• Liver influences immunity and metabolism in multiple organs in the body, including gut.
• It releases bile acids and other metabolites into biliary tract from where they enter the systemic circulation.