everything of which we are aware at any
given time, our thoughts, feelings, mental processes,
and events outside ourselves.
unaware you are in it
theta waves, hynagonic imergary, includes bizzare imagery
May have sensation of falling (hypnic myoclonia) or experience
sudden jerks (myoclonic jerks) of limbs
About 10 mins
Burst of electrical activity (sleep spindles) and k-complexes appear.
heart and body rate lower and muscles relax.
spend about 65% of sleep in this stage
about 30 minutes
Slow wave sleep and delta waves.
difficult to awaken
43% of dream reports
about 30 minutes
vivid dreaming happens
20-25% of our nights sleep
about 20 minutes
A type of learning in which an organism comes
to associate stimuli
A type of learning in which behaviour is
strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a
An unlearned stimulus that automatically triggers a
The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the
An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
association with an US, comes to trigger a CR
The learned response to a CS.
Lessening of a CR, when US does not occur after a CS.
The reappearance after a pause, of an extinguished CR
The tendency for stimuli similar to
the CS to elicit similar CRs
The learned ability to distinguish between a CS and
stimuli that do not signal an US.
Something as seemingly gross as
onion breath can become
associated with sexual arousal
Infants assume that a novel
word they hear refers to a whole object
Infants generalize their word to other “like kinds”
The child rejects the notion that a novel word is a synonym
of a word they already know. (handle cup example example)
involves allowing an infinite number of unique sentences
to be created by combining words in novel ways
are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to
make judgments and solve problems efficiently
The tendency to be rigid in how
one thinks about an object’s function
Memory you use for information
you are actively working on.
Are organized knowledge structures
that we’ve stored in memory.
Visualize a familiar room in detail,
(declarative memory) stores
information that can be brought to mind verbally or
can be stored in images
a part of explicit memory that stores the
memory of the events of your life.
memory without awareness
knowledge, facts & information.
incorporating misleading information
into one’s memory of how an event unfolded.
A form of learning in which the consequences of
involves something being given
involves something being taken away.
refers to any pleasant or
desirable consequence that, if applied after a response,
increases the probability that the response will re-occur
refers to the application of an
unpleasant stimulus, which tends to suppress a response.
refers to a behaviour that is
likely to occur again because it was followed by the
termination of an aversive condition.
removal of a pleasant stimulus
when each correct response is reinforced
when correct responses are reinforced
randomly or intermittently. Much more like in everyday life.
is reinforcement given after a fixed number of
teacher giving students stars for good behaviour
is reinforcement given after a varying number
of correct responses.
eg slot machines or abusive relationships
is reinforcement given after a specific time interval
Eg., checking more frequently for the mail as delivery
Variable Interval is reinforcement given after a varying amount of
E.g., You expect to receive an e-mail but don’t know when.
everything of which we are aware at any
act out their dreams because brain stem
structures responsible for the paralysis that normally occurs
can be emotional, illogical, and show sudden
are often shorter, more
thought-like and repetitive,
occurs when you realize you are dreaming
occurs during stage 3 & 4
occurs during any sleep stage
and is more frequent among children
a sleep disorder characterized by excessive
daytime sleepiness and uncontrollable REM sleep.
consists of periods during sleep when
a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty
falling and staying asleep; by waking too early; or by sleep
that is light, restless, or of poor quality
a sense of our consciousness leaving our body
: out of body experiences reported
by people who’ve nearly died
a feeling of reliving an experience
that is new.
provides people with suggestions
for alterations in their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviours
: Refers to the ‘movement’ of
the drug through the body that involves absorption,
distribution, metabolization, and excretion
Refers to the mechanism
of action of drugs
Tendancy to remember words at the beggining of the list especially well
tendancy to remember stimuli that are disinctive or that stick out like sore thumbs from other stimuli
our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we've encounterd similar stimuli
reactivation of or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores
process of keeping information in memory
process of getting information into our memory bank
Inhibitlity ro encode new memories from our experiences
memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits
tendancy for animals to return to innate behaviours following repeated reinforcement
process by which organizms display a less pronounced conditioned response to conditioned stimuli that differ from the orginal conditioned response
category of sounds our vocal apparatus procedures
smallest meaninful unit of speach
grammatical rules that govern how words are composed into meaningful strings
meaning dervived from words and sentences
theory that dreams are meaninful products of our cognitive capacities which shapes what we dream about
hypothesisis that there id continuity between sleeping and walking experiences and that dreams can mirror life circumstances